Connect with us

College Mascots

Typhoid: Causes, Treatment and Prevention

Published

on

Advertisements

Typhoid is one of the difficult diseases to come by. This is because it’s nature mimics that of malaria so it’s quite difficult to notice the onset.

Typhoid fever

What Is Typhoid?

Typhoidd fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children.

Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who’s infected. Signs and symptoms usually include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea.

Most people with typhoid fever feel better within a few days of starting antibiotic treatment, although a small number of them may die of complications. Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they’re only partially effective. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
How is typhoid fever spread?
Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed Salmonella Typhi in their feces (stool).
You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding Salmonella Typhi or if sewage contaminated with Salmonella Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where handwashing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.
Once Salmonella Typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream. The body reacts with fever and other signs and symptoms.

Types of Typhoid fever

Is caused by a Gram-negative organism Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella typhi).

Paratyphoid fever

Is divided into three subtypes (A, B and C). Paratyphoid fever is caused by any of three serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica:
paratyphi A.
schottmuelleri (also called S. paratyphi B).
hirschfeldii (also called S. paratyphi C).

Type A is the most common worldwide, although B predominates in Europe. Type C is rare, and is seen only in the Far East.

The overall ratio of disease caused by S. typhi to that caused by S. paratyphi is about 10 to 1.
Risk factors

Advertisements

Typhoid fever remains a serious worldwide threat especially in the developing world affecting an estimated 26 million or more people each year. The disease is endemic in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and many other areas.

Worldwide, children are at greatest risk of getting the disease, although they generally have milder symptoms than adults do.

If you live in a country where typhoid fever is rare, you’re at increased risk if you:
Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic
Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria
Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever
Drinking water contaminated by sewage that contains typhi.

Causes of Typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by infection with Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi is similar to, but not the same as, the Salmonella bacteria that causes food poisoning in the US. Unlike most types of Salmonella, Salmonella typhi only live and reproduce inside humans.

Route of Transmission

Salmonella typhi is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. This means that it is spread from person to person when you eat, drink or even touch your mouth with anything contaminated with infected feces. Because the Salmonella typhi multiply in human intestines, the bacteria is shed in the feces (solid material passed during a bowel movement).

Modes of Transmission

Anything that becomes contaminated with feces that contain Salmonella typhi has the potential to spread the virus. The following are several ways you can get yellow fever:
Drinking contaminated water
Eating fresh fruits or vegetables that have been washed with contaminated water
Eating food prepared by someone who has not washed their hands thoroughly
Touching your mouth after going to the bathroom, before you wash your hands
Eating seafood harvested from a contaminated body of water (lake, ocean, river)
Having oral or anal sex with someone who is infected with the bacteria

High-risk Destinations

Typhoid fever is most common in countries where there is poor sanitation and lack of access to clean drinking water. In these countries it is more likely that infected human feces contaminate the water supply. In addition, handwashing may not be practiced as frequently as in developed countries (where food establishments require employees to wash hands).

Carriers

In some people the bacteria survives in the body even after treatment has effectively relieved their symptoms. These people are considered carriers, because the bacteria continues to be shed through their feces, so contact with their feces carries the disease to other people. Carriers don’t realize they are still infected because they don’t have symptoms.

Symptoms of Typhoid Fever

Symptoms usually appear 1 or 2 weeks after infection but may take as long as 3 weeks to appear. Typhoid usually causes a high, sustained fever, often as high as 40°C (104°F), and extreme exhaustion.

Other common symptoms include:
Constipation
Cough
Headache
Loss of appetite
Stomach pains
Sore throat

Rarer symptoms include:
Bleeding from the rectum
Delirium
Diarrhea
Temporary pink spots on the chest and abdomen

In some people, signs and symptoms may return up to two weeks after the fever has subsided.
Complications

Advertisements

Serious complications of typhoid fever usually occur only in people who have not been treated or are treated late in the illness. Complications tend to develop during the third week of infection. The two most serious complications of typhoid fever are intestinal bleeding and intestinal perforation.

Intestinal Bleeding

Without treatment the bacteria continue to multiply in the intestines. Intestinal bleeding as a potential complication. The seriousness of the complication depends on the severity of the bleeding– how much blood is lost and how quickly. The first sign of intestinal bleeding can be a sudden drop in blood pressure. The following are symptoms of intestinal bleeding:
Fatigue
Shortness of breath
Pale skin
Irregular heartbeat
Vomiting blood
Blood in stools (stools appear dark and tar-like)
Intestinal bleeding may require a blood transfusion to replace blood loss.

Intestinal Perforation

Intestinal perforation is always a life-threatening complication. A perforation occurs when a hole develops in the walls of the intestines. The contents of the intestines then leak out through the hole and collect in the abdominal cavity. Perforation essentially lets the bacteria loose inside the body. The peritoneum is the lining of the abdominal cavity. Intestinal perforation can cause inflammation or infection of the peritoneum, a condition known as peritonitis. The following are signs and symptoms of intestinal perforation:
Severe abdominal pain
Nausea
Vomiting
Sepsis (infection in the bloodstream)
Intestinal perforation is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis and test

Diagnosis includes questions about travel, examining blood, stool or bone marrow for evidence of infection, and additional testing to determine the particular strain of Salmonella typhi that is causing the illness.

Travel Abroad

Once symptoms have been evaluated, if typhoid fever (or any other unusual infectious disease) is suspected, your doctor will ask detailed questions about travel and potential contact with someone who has traveled or may be carrying the bacteria, such as the following:

Have you traveled out of the country recently?

What country did you travel to?

Do you remember what you ate or drank while you were there?

Do you have a family member or partner who has traveled abroad recently? Where did they travel?

Blood or stool sample

A sample of your blood and/or feces will be sent to the lab to be cultured to see if the S. typhi bacteria grow (the test is called a blood culture or stool culture). In some cases an antibody test might be used to look for substances associated with Typhoid bacteria. A complete blood count (CBC) measures the number and type of blood cells in your blood sample. If you have typhoid fever the CBC may reveal a high white blood cell (WBC) count and a low number of platelets (blood cell fragments that help with blood clotting). If your tests are positive your close contacts and family members may also be tested for the illness.

Bone marrow biopsy

A bone marrow biopsy is a more accurate method of diagnosing typhoid fever, but it is much more complicated to perform. The bone marrow is the spongy material in the middle of certain bones that produce blood cells. A bone marrow biopsy involves using a long, hollow needle inserted into a bone, usually the pelvis or the breast bone, to obtain a tissue sample, which is examined under a microscope for evidence of the infection. A bone marrow biopsy is only performed if other tests are inconclusive.

Strain identification

Further testing can determine what antibiotics will be most effective against your particular strain of Salmonella typhi.

Treatments

Drinking fluids: This helps prevent the dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea. If you’re severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein (intravenously).

Surgery: If your intestines become perforated, you’ll need surgery to repair the hole.

Prevention

Preventing typhoid is all about avoiding contaminated food and water. The same healthy practices will also help protect you from diseases such as cholera and hepatitis A, which are transmitted in the same way. Follow these guidelines to minimize your risk:
Boil or disinfect all water before drinking it – use disinfectant tablets or liquid available in pharmacies or drink commercially bottled (preferably carbonated) beverages.
Peel all fruit and vegetable skins before eating.
Keep flies away from food.
Watch out for ice cubes, ice cream, and unpasteurized milk, which can easily be contaminated.
Cook all food thoroughly and eat it while it’s hot.
Be aware of the “danger foods” shellfish, salads, and raw fruit and vegetables.
Do not eat food or drink beverages from street vendors.

At present, vaccinations against typhoid provide about 50% protection for 3 to 7 years – the duration of protection depends on the vaccine used. The vaccine is available as an oral capsule and as an injection. Your doctor will determine what form is best for you or your children. Even vaccinated people must follow the food safety tips listed above. It is best to be immunized at least 7 to 14 days before possible exposure (depending on the vaccine used).

Advertisements

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

College Mascots

Eight Health Advantages of Guava Fruit and Leaves

Published

on

Advertisements

HEALTH BENEFITS OF GUAVA FRUITS AND LEAVES

Tropical plants from Central America are the source of guavas.

Their fruits are oval in shape, with skin that is either pale green or yellow, and the seeds are edible. Additionally, guava leaf extract is utilized as a supplement, and the leaves are used to make a herbal tea.

Guava fruits are incredibly high in fiber, vitamin C, potassium, and antioxidants. They have numerous health advantages thanks to this exceptional nutrient content.

style="text-align: left;">Here are 8 guava fruit and leaf health advantages supported by scientific research.

1. Might Aid in Blood Sugar Control

Guava may help you better regulate your blood sugar, according to some data.

Guava leaf extract reduced blood sugar levels, long-term blood sugar control, and insulin resistance, according to several test-tube and animal investigations.

For individuals at risk or who have diabetes, this is good news.

A few human experiments have also produced some striking outcomes.

A 19-person study found that drinking guava leaf tea after a meal reduced blood sugar levels. The results persisted for up to two hours.

In a second trial, 20 participants with type 2 diabetes who drank guava leaf tea after eating had their blood sugar levels drop by more than 10%.

2. Could Improve Heart Health

Guavas have a lot of potential benefits for heart health.

Many scientists think that the abundant vitamins and antioxidants in guava leaves may help shield your heart from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Guavas’ greater potassium and soluble fiber content are also believed to benefit heart health.

Guava leaf extract has also been associated with reduced blood pressure, a rise in “good” HDL cholesterol, and a drop in “bad” LDL cholesterol.

Taking guava leaf extract may have beneficial effects because high blood pressure and high levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased risks of heart disease and stroke.

Additionally, the fruit might be advantageous for heart health as well.

Advertisements

Eating ripe guava before meals resulted in an overall drop in blood pressure of 8 to 9 points, a fall in total cholesterol of 9.9 percent, and an increase in “good” HDL cholesterol of 8 percent, according to a 12-week trial of 120 participants.

Numerous other investigations have observed this same impact.


3. Could ease uncomfortable menstrual symptoms

Dysmenorrhea, which includes uncomfortable menstrual symptoms such stomach cramps, is a common occurrence among women.

There is some proof, nevertheless, that guava leaf extract may lessen the severity of menstrual cramps’ discomfort.

According to a study involving 197 women who had severe symptoms, ingesting 6 mg of guava leaf extract daily lessened the severity of the pain. It gave the impression of being much more potent than certain painkillers.

Another theory suggests that guava leaf extract can ease menstrual cramps.

4. Might Be Beneficial For Your Digestive System

A great source of dietary fiber is guavas.

Consequently, increasing your guava intake may promote regular bowel motions and ward off constipation.

One guava can give you 12% of the daily required amount of fiber.

Guava leaf extract may also be advantageous to intestinal health. According to studies, it might lessen the severity and duration of diarrhea.

Several research have also demonstrated the antibacterial properties of guava leaf extract. This indicates that it has the ability to eliminate potentially dangerous intestinal microorganisms that can result in diarrhea.

Advertisements

5. Can Help You Lose Weight

Guavas are a healthy fruit for shedding pounds.

Fruits are a full, low-calorie snack because they have only 37 calories per fruit and provide 12 percent of the daily necessary fiber intake.

They are nutrient-dense, unlike some other low-calorie snacks, so you aren’t missing out on any essential vitamins or minerals.

6. Might Have Cancer-Preventive Effects

It has been demonstrated that guava leaf extract has anticancer properties. Guava extract can inhibit and even stop the growth of cancer cells, according to research conducted on animals and in test tubes.

This is most likely caused by the abundance of potent antioxidants, which shield cells from the cell-damaging effects of free radicals, one of the primary cancer-causing agents.

Guava leaf oil was found to be four times more effective than some cancer medications in one test-tube trial at halting the growth of cancer cells.

Although the outcomes of tests in test tubes are encouraging, guava leaf extract does not necessarily help treat cancer in humans. Before any conclusions can be drawn, more research is required.


7. Might Strengthen Your Immunity

An increased risk of infections and illnesses is associated with low levels of vitamin C.

As one of the best food sources of vitamin C, guavas are a great method to receive this nutrient.

In fact, one guava has roughly twice as much vitamin C as is recommended daily (RDI). You would receive about twice as much from an orange as this.

A strong immune system is maintained in large part by vitamin C.

Vitamin C has been demonstrated to shorten the length of colds, even if it hasn’t been proven to prevent them.

It also has antibacterial advantages. This indicates that it aids in the elimination of harmful bacteria and viruses that might cause infections.

It’s critical to routinely consume adequate vitamin C through your diet because it can be quickly drained out of your system.

8. Consuming Guavas Could Benefit Your Skin

A guava’s diverse array of vitamins and antioxidants may do wonders for your skin. Its antioxidants might shield your skin from harm, which might delay aging and help avoid wrinkles.

Furthermore, applying guava leaf extract directly to your skin may potentially help treat acne.

Guava leaf extract was found to be effective at killing acne-causing bacteria in a test-tube study, most likely because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities.

To validate the effect of guavas and guava extract in preserving good skin, more research is required.

The Conclusion

Guavas are wonderfully tasty and full with vitamins.

This tropical fruit is a great complement to a balanced diet because it is high in fiber and low in calories.

The advantages of guava leaf extracts, which are consumed as dietary supplements, have also been supported by numerous research.

Guava fruit and leaf extracts may improve your immune system, digestion, and heart health in addition to other advantages.

 

ALSO READ: HEALTH BENEFITS OF COCONUT WATER

                       INCREDIBLE HEALTH BENEFITS OF BITTER KOLA

Advertisements

Continue Reading

College Mascots

How to relieve burning throat: 7 causes

Published

on

Advertisements

The usual sign of infections and other underlying medical disorders is a burning throat. It may appear on its own or in conjunction with other symptoms.

A burning throat is frequently treatable at home. Recovery depends on getting lots of rest and consuming plenty of fluids.

Discover the potential reasons of a burning throat in this article, and discover when to seek medical attention. We also go over some easy home cures for treating the ailment.

The Causes And Remedies

A burning throat may have a variety of causes, including:

1. Flu and colds

A cold or the flu is a typical reason for a burning throat. These infections, which impact the respiratory, or breathing, system, are brought on by viruses.

The following are typical cold and flu symptoms:

A sore throat

The cough

A blocked nose

Sore muscles

Tiredness

Headaches

Anyone experiencing severe symptoms of the flu should consult a doctor since it can lead to complications. Breathing difficulties, chest pain, convulsions, and lightheadedness are some of these symptoms.

2. Tonsillitis

At the back of the throat are tissue lumps called tonsils that aid in the defense against bacteria and viruses. An infection called tonsillitis causes the tonsils to enlarge.

Typically, an infection results in:

Discomfort and pain in the throat

Having trouble swallowing

Red or enlarged tonsils

Headaches

Tiredness

The flu

An ear pain

Tonsillitis typically gets better in 1-2 weeks.

dependable source Home remedies for the condition include lots of rest, drinks, over-the-counter pain relievers, and throat lozenges.

3. GERD

The muscle that connects the esophagus, or food pipe, to the stomach weakens or relaxes, resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Food or stomach acid may rise into the throat and occasionally the back of the mouth when the muscle is not sufficiently tight.

Advertisements

Heartburn is the predominant symptom of GERD. Additional signs include:

Nausea

Poor breath

Chest pain

Having trouble swallowing

The feeling of burning in the throat

Changing one’s lifestyle as part of treatment frequently entails eliminating rich or acidic items from the diet. Some people need to be medicated or operated on.

4. Strep throat 

A person with strep throat may suffer a fever, a burning sensation in their throat, and discomfort when swallowing.

Several unpleasant sensations are brought on by the bacterial illness known as strep throat.

Strep throat symptoms can appear suddenly and include the following:

A sore throat

Difficulty swallowing

A flu

Headaches

Nausea

Red or enlarged tonsils

Advertisements

A throat swab can be used to diagnose strep throat, and a doctor may also recommend antibiotics. During healing, a person should also get lots of rest and hydration.

5. Mono

Mono, also referred to as infectious mononucleosis, is a highly contagious viral infection. Young adults and teenagers are most likely to contract itTrusted Source.

The ailment usually manifests itself 4-6 weeks after first coming into touch with the virus. An early sign of mono is a sore or burning throat.

Additional signs include:

Fever

Extreme fatigue

Sore muscles

Headaches

A rash

Mono usually requires 2-4 weeks to heal, although some people experience symptoms for months. Rest, over-the-counter pain relievers, and drinking lots of fluids are all part of the treatment.

Mono spreads like wildfire. Doctors advise those who have it to avoid kissing and to avoid sharing food, drinks, or toothbrushes.

6. The burning mouth condition

A painful condition is burning mouth syndrome. It hurts and gives the mouth and surrounding area a burning or tingling sensation.

A peculiar aftertaste in the mouth and dry mouth are other symptoms. The lips, tongue, or roof of the mouth may be impacted.

Before making a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome, a doctor may do tests to rule out underlying reasons.

7. Esophagitis

Esophagitis is esophageal inflammation. This inflammation can be brought on by GERD, medication, an infection, or an allergy.

Heartburn, swallowing issues, and a burning throat are typical symptoms.

Esophagitis needs to be treated in order to prevent long-term health problems, although recovery is possible.

Esophagitis with eosinophilia is one variation of the illness. This is a persistent food allergy that results in inflammation of the food pipe. The diagnosis might be difficult, and different professionals may need to collaborate on the treatment strategy.

Eosinophilic esophagitis can be diagnosed by a doctor using a tissue sample from the patient’s throat, a skin prick test, or blood tests.

Eliminating a particular food from the diet that is triggering the reaction frequently alleviates the inflammation.

A Home Remedy

A person may need medical attention, depending on the medical condition causing the burning in the throat.

However, home remedies can be useful for treating symptoms and relieving discomfort when the ailment is the result of a cold, flu, or tonsillitis.

When fighting off a cold or the flu, it’s important to stay hydrated because the body loses fluids through sweating and runny nose. The body can work better and resist viruses and bacteria with the aid of water.

Drinking enough of liquids can aid in preventing the throat from drying out, which can irritate it. Try consuming a beverage made of hot water, honey, and lemon to relieve throat discomfort.

Heat relaxes muscles and helps ease discomfort, so keeping the throat warm can also help with soreness. For warmth, loosely encircle the neck in a scarf.

Resting is important because the body needs time to heal. Reduced activity and time off from work or school can aid in recuperation and stop the spread of infections.

Whenever to visit a doctor

A person should consult their doctor if they experience both chest pain and a burning throat.

Tonsillitis or a cold are typically best treated at home. Medication may be necessary for other conditions.

Consult a doctor if a sore throat persists for longer than two weeks.

A burning throat may be accompanied by more severe symptoms. Adults who exhibit any of the following symptoms in addition to the flu may require emergency medical care:

Chest pain

Dizziness

Confusion

Not going potty

Severe muscular ache

Extreme fragility

Having trouble breathing

Seizures

If there are any questions regarding symptoms, persons over the age of 65, children, pregnant women, and those with compromised immune systems should consult a doctor.

Conclusion

In conclusion, tonsillitis, GERD, colds, and other illnesses can all result in a burning sensation in the throat.

Keep the neck wet and use other natural therapies to relieve the soreness.

Consult a doctor for a complete diagnosis and treatment if symptoms are severe or if over-the-counter medications do not sufficiently relieve them within a few weeks.

Advertisements

Continue Reading

College Mascots

Green Tea – Health Benefits

Published

on

Advertisements

 

Green Tea – Health Benefits

You know that green tea provides many benefits for us and our health. Chinese knew about the health benefits of green tea long ago and they are using green tea to treat everything, from headaches to stress. We give you 18 good reasons why you should drink this magical herb.

1. Green Tea helps in weight loss

Green tea helps in melting fat, which is very good if we are willing to lose weight. Except burning fat, green tea also boosts our metabolism naturally. It can help us burn up to 70 calories in just one day. That means if we consume green tea regularly we can lose up to 3.5 kg (7.5 lbs) per year.

2. Green Tea reduces blood cholesterol levels

Green tea can help reducing blood cholesterol levels. It also enhances relationship between bad cholesterol and good cholesterol, by reducing bad cholesterol level.

3. Green Tea prevents heart diseases

Green tea helps preventing heart disease and stroke, thus reduces bad cholesterol level.  After a heart attack, green tea speeds up the recovery of the heart cells.

4. Green Tea reduces risk of cancer

Green tea helps reducing the risk of cancer. Antioxidants in green tea are more effective than vitamin C and also are considered to be much better than vitamin E. It helps your body protect cells from damage related to cancer.

5. Green Tea reduces the risk of arthritis

Green tea can reduce and sometimes help against the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. It protects the cartilage by blocking the enzyme that destroys cartilage.

6. Green Tea is good for treating Alzheimer’s

There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but green tea helps in slowing down the process that releases acetylcholine in the brain, leading to Alzheimer’s disease, so it helps improving your memory.

7. Green Tea strengthens our bones

Green tea has high fluoride content. Fluoride helps maintaining bone strength. If you drink green tea every day, it will help you keep your bone density.

8. Green Tea for anti-aging treatment

Green tea helps against aging and helps us look beautiful and younger. This benefit comes due to the antioxidants known as polyphenols which fight against harmful effects of free radicals causing skin aging and wrinkling.

 9. Green Tea prevents obesity

Advertisements

Green tea prevents obesity by stopping glucose turn into fat cells. If you drink green tea and if you practice healthy diet, also if you exercise regularly, you will never be overweight and you will have nice sculpted body and excellent health.

Advertisements

10. Green Tea is good for patients with diabetes

Green tea improves glucose metabolism and prevents increasing of blood sugar levels.

11. Green Tea helps preventing high blood pressure

Drinking green tea helps keeping lower blood pressure by repressing angiotensin, which leads to high blood pressure.

12. Green Tea helps preventing Parkinson’s disease

People who drink green tea reduce the probability of having Parkinson’s disease. Antioxidants in green tea help preventing brain cell damage, which could cause Parkinson’s disease.

13. Green Tea is good for liver diseases

It helps preventing transplantation in people with liver failure. Green tea also destroys harmful free radicals in fatty liver.

14. Green Tea strengthens the immune system

Green tea contains flavonoids and polyphenols which help in strengthening the immune system, making your body become stronger and fight against infections.

15. Green Tea reduces blood sugar

Green tea contains polyphenols and polysaccharides that help us reducing blood sugar.

16. Green tea helps fighting flu and allergies

Green tea contains Vitamin C which helps preventing and also fighting flu. Epigallocatechin gallate which is found in green tea relieves allergies.

17. Green Tea reduces stress and helps against tooth decay

Green tea is rich in L-theanine – amino acid which can help reducing stress. Green tea also destroys viruses and bacteria which cause many dental diseases of teeth.

 18. Green Tea prevents food poisoning

Green tea contains antioxidant catechin capable of destroying bacteria responsible for food poisoning, green tea also kills toxins in our body.

 

Advertisements

Continue Reading
Advertisements

Trending