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The Meaning, Causes, Prevention And Treatment Of Cold Sores




Cold sores may be painful and feel itchy, dry, and crusty. If the blisters come back another time, they may cause a tingling feeling before they appear on the skin. The virus that causes them, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), is very common and spreads very easily. Although the virus is commonly spread by kissing, it may also spread by more casual contact.

Cold sore on the upper lip

Two kinds of herpes simplex outbreaks may occur: primary and recurrent.
When your child is first infected with HSV-1, it causes a more severe outbreak. In addition to cold sores, there may be other symptoms such as fever, swollen gums, enlarged lymph nodes, and sore throat.
Cold sores may come back once in a while. Recurrent outbreaks are much less severe than the primary outbreak. Your child will probably have no fever or other symptoms. However, HSV-1 can cause sores elsewhere on the body.

Stages of cold sore

There are five different stages:

This stage normally lasts between a few hours and a day. The cold sore is invisible at this stage but a tingling or burning sensation may be felt. If an antiviral cream (aciclovir) is applied at this stage it may prevent the visible signs of the cold sore from appearing. Aciclovir attacks the virus and stops it from multiplying.

This stage is characterized by a small group of painful, fluid-filled blisters. These are normally seen on the second day of the cold sore cycle. Here again, treatment with an antiviral cream will reduce the life of the cold sore.


Once the small blisters have burst, a weeping ulcer is seen that may last for several days. This stage is also very painful. The clear liquid that is released from the ulcer contains a high number of viral particles and as such is highly contagious.


After about 4 days a thin scab will form, acting as a protective covering for the new skin that is forming beneath. The skin around the scab may dry and crack and even bleed. Moisturising the area will help to reduce this. The scab may also be itchy, but is not contagious at this stage.

After 9 – 12 days the cold sore will have healed. A slightly red/pink area of skin will remain but will quickly fade. Most people who get cold sores will usually experience around 2 – 3 attacks per year although some people may get as many as 12.
History behind cold sores
Herpes was first formally recognized by Hippocrates (460 to 370 BCE), who wrote about the symptoms of herpes lesions.
The word herpes is taken from the Greek “herpein,” meaning to creep or crawl. This refers to the way the herpes sores spread over the affected area.
Later on, in Roman times, the Roman Emperor Tiberius tried to quell an oral herpes outbreak by banning kissing at public celebrations, events, and ceremonies.
A Roman physician named Celsus developed a treatment method for herpes that involved cauterizing open herpes lesions with a hot iron.
In 1893, French scientist Emile Vidal proved through experimentation that herpes was transmitted from one person to another.
In 1884 Louis Duhring, an American dermatologist, confirmed that herpes was different from eczema and pemphigus, which are non-contagious skin conditions.
Two years later, in 1886, French doctors Charles-Paul Diday and Adrien Doyon published a full-length book about herpes called “The Genital Herpes.”
Viruses were discovered by Dmitri Ivanovski in Russia in 1893. Although Ivanovski was studying tobacco viruses, not herpes viruses, his research later became important for studying herpes.
In 1896 German physician Paul Unna develops a way to differentiate herpes from syphilis under a microscope. This is important because previously it was not possible to identify the difference between herpes and syphilis since they often occurred concurrently.
1913: Wilhelm Grater, a German ophthalmologist, is able to transmit the herpes virus from an infected person to the cornea of a rabbit and back again to a human. This is named the Grater test, which is used to diagnose herpes until the 1940’s.
In 1925 an American virologist, Ernest Goodpasture, proves that the herpes virus travels through the nerves, not the blood.
In 1939, Frank LacFarlane Burnet, an Australian microbiologist, develop the theory of latency, or the fact that the herpes virus resides in the ganglions while there are no symptoms. In 1971 scientists Jack Stevens and Marjorie Cook prove it.
A French scientist, Arnaud Tzanck develops cryto-diagnosis for herpes, which replaces the Grater test.
In 1978, the first anti-viral drug, Acyclovir that was safe, non-toxic, and effective is tested in humans. It was developed by Gertrude Elion, and three years later was available commercially.


Causes of cold sores

Any infection, such as a cold, can prompt the virus to show itself
It is easier for the virus to become active when your immune system (your body’s natural defense) is weakened by another illness
Trauma, such as a scrape or cut
Emotional stress
Sun exposure
Some women experience active fever blisters only during their menstrual cycle
Some scientific evidence indicates the herpes virus is inherited
Complications after the onset of cold sores

Cold sores are unlikely to cause complications, except occasionally, in patients with a weakened immune system. Possible complications include:
Dehydration: This is possible if pain in the mouth and throat makes the patient reluctant to drink.
Herpetic whitlow: The cold sore virus spreads to other parts of the body, for example, the hands, causing blisters to appear on their fingers, usually through a cut or graze in the skin. Antiviral medications can treat this type of complication.
Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis: A secondary infection causes the eyes to become swollen and irritated, possibly with sores on the eyelids. Antiviral medication can usually help. Without treatment, the cornea may become infected, resulting in possible vision loss.
Bacterial infections. Cold sores may become infected with bacteria or may lead to ulcers that take a long time to heal. Sores may become more crusted (yellow or oozing pus).
Encephalitis: If the virus spreads to the brain, the brain can swell. There is a serious risk of brain damage, and possibly death.


Risk factors

People who have weakened immune systems are at higher risk of complications from the virus. Medical conditions and treatments that increase your risk of complications include:
Severe burns
Cancer chemotherapy
Anti-rejection drugs for organ transplants


The diagnosis of cold sores is usually based on the appearance of the lesions. Usually, no laboratory test is needed because most sores that look like cold sores are cold sores. Occasionally, mouth sores known as canker sores may be mistaken for cold sores.

However, canker sores occur inside the mouth whereas recurrent cold sores usually occur on the lips. If there is a question about the diagnosis, a variety of tests are available, including viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
To do these tests, a swab is rubbed over an active blister. Swabbing the blister in an attempt to culture the virus in the lab works best in the first 24-48 hours before the blister has crusted over.

`There is also a way to test for herpes DNA in a swab that has been rubbed on the sore. This type of testing is called a “polymerase chain reaction” or PCR for short. PCR testing is very good at detecting herpes virus, but it is not as readily available as culture.

Treatment and medications

Cold sores are generally not dangerous and do not cause any permanent damage to the skin. It is also important to note that treatment will not “cure” the condition, but will treat the symptoms and may shorten the duration of the “flare up.”

Cream to treat dryness and irritation
Aciclovir Cream—e.g. Zovirax, Chemist’s Own Cold Sore Cream

These should be applied at the first signs of a cold sore (the “tingle” stage) to help limit the attack and speed up healing. They work as an “anti-viral” fighting the herpes virus to help stop it replicating and growing. Apply 5 times a day (every 4 hours while awake) for 4-5 days. This is the preferred method of treatment as long at it is applied at the first sign of the lesion.
Idoxuridine with lignocaine—e.g. Virasolve

Apply at first sign of cold sore—apply a thin layer to the affected area every hour on the first day, then every 4 hours until cold sore disappears. Provides good pain relief with the use of lignocaine (local anaesthetic) and keeps the lesion moist; however, please note idoxuridne has not been proven to be effective in treating the virus
Povidone Iodine Ointment—e.g. Betadine Cold Sore Ointment

This may be applied at any stage in the cold sore cycle. This ointment may help to inactivate the virus and also reduce the spread of HSV-1 infection. Note: this product is not suitable if you have an iodine allergy. Apply liberally to the affected area at least 4 times a day.
Protective lip balms—e.g. Carmex, Blistex, Nyal Cold Sore Cream

These often contain menthol and camphor, and act with analgesic and antiseptic qualities. They also help to keep the lesion moisturised and avoid cracking/splitting of the scab while it is in the healing stage. Do not let your cold sore dry out, as it will take longer to heal.
L-Lysine, Zinc and Vitamin C supplements—e.g. Ethical Nutrients Lysine Viral Cold Sore Defence, Blackmores Lyp-Sine Tablets

These supplements may help to reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks of cold sores. They also act as nutritional support for a normal, healthy immune function.
Cold sore healing patches—e.g. Compeed

These patches hide and protect the cold sore, reducing symptoms and the risk of contamination from the wound.
Herbal/natural applications—e.g. Dynamiclear

Dynamiclear contains natural plant and mineral ingredients and is marketed as a single application liquid gel.

Activities that save spreading from one to other places of body includes:
Avoid touching your cold sore except when applying a cold sore product
Do not let other people touch your cold sore or come into contact with fluid from the cold sore (e.g., kissing, hugging)
Do not touch your eyes after touching the cold sore (to avoid spreading the infection to your eyes)
Do not share cold sore cream with others
Do not share eating or drinking utensils, toothbrushes, towels, face cloths, razors or lipstick
Cover your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, as herpes simplex can be spread by saliva.

Prevention of spreading cold sores

If blisters have burst, keep the area clean and dry.
The pain may be eased by applying ice to the blister.

Follow the instructions carefully when using cold sore medicines.
Avoid getting cold sore product in your eyes or inside your mouth.
Wash your hands before and after applying a cold sore product.
Avoid breaking blisters or ‘picking’ a scab, as this will delay healing and increase the risk of bacterial infection.
Try to identify and avoid things that trigger your cold sores.
Wear a wide brimmed hat and at least SPF 15+ sunscreen on your lips and face when in the sun.
Learn and use relaxation techniques to relieve stress.
Eat regular, healthy meals, including fruit, vegetables and grain foods. Limit foods high in fat, sugar or salt.
Get enough sleep.

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College Mascots

Eight Health Advantages of Guava Fruit and Leaves





Tropical plants from Central America are the source of guavas.

Their fruits are oval in shape, with skin that is either pale green or yellow, and the seeds are edible. Additionally, guava leaf extract is utilized as a supplement, and the leaves are used to make a herbal tea.

Guava fruits are incredibly high in fiber, vitamin C, potassium, and antioxidants. They have numerous health advantages thanks to this exceptional nutrient content.

style="text-align: left;">Here are 8 guava fruit and leaf health advantages supported by scientific research.

1. Might Aid in Blood Sugar Control

Guava may help you better regulate your blood sugar, according to some data.

Guava leaf extract reduced blood sugar levels, long-term blood sugar control, and insulin resistance, according to several test-tube and animal investigations.

For individuals at risk or who have diabetes, this is good news.

A few human experiments have also produced some striking outcomes.

A 19-person study found that drinking guava leaf tea after a meal reduced blood sugar levels. The results persisted for up to two hours.

In a second trial, 20 participants with type 2 diabetes who drank guava leaf tea after eating had their blood sugar levels drop by more than 10%.

2. Could Improve Heart Health

Guavas have a lot of potential benefits for heart health.

Many scientists think that the abundant vitamins and antioxidants in guava leaves may help shield your heart from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Guavas’ greater potassium and soluble fiber content are also believed to benefit heart health.

Guava leaf extract has also been associated with reduced blood pressure, a rise in “good” HDL cholesterol, and a drop in “bad” LDL cholesterol.

Taking guava leaf extract may have beneficial effects because high blood pressure and high levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased risks of heart disease and stroke.

Additionally, the fruit might be advantageous for heart health as well.


Eating ripe guava before meals resulted in an overall drop in blood pressure of 8 to 9 points, a fall in total cholesterol of 9.9 percent, and an increase in “good” HDL cholesterol of 8 percent, according to a 12-week trial of 120 participants.

Numerous other investigations have observed this same impact.

3. Could ease uncomfortable menstrual symptoms

Dysmenorrhea, which includes uncomfortable menstrual symptoms such stomach cramps, is a common occurrence among women.

There is some proof, nevertheless, that guava leaf extract may lessen the severity of menstrual cramps’ discomfort.

According to a study involving 197 women who had severe symptoms, ingesting 6 mg of guava leaf extract daily lessened the severity of the pain. It gave the impression of being much more potent than certain painkillers.

Another theory suggests that guava leaf extract can ease menstrual cramps.

4. Might Be Beneficial For Your Digestive System

A great source of dietary fiber is guavas.

Consequently, increasing your guava intake may promote regular bowel motions and ward off constipation.

One guava can give you 12% of the daily required amount of fiber.

Guava leaf extract may also be advantageous to intestinal health. According to studies, it might lessen the severity and duration of diarrhea.

Several research have also demonstrated the antibacterial properties of guava leaf extract. This indicates that it has the ability to eliminate potentially dangerous intestinal microorganisms that can result in diarrhea.


5. Can Help You Lose Weight

Guavas are a healthy fruit for shedding pounds.

Fruits are a full, low-calorie snack because they have only 37 calories per fruit and provide 12 percent of the daily necessary fiber intake.

They are nutrient-dense, unlike some other low-calorie snacks, so you aren’t missing out on any essential vitamins or minerals.

6. Might Have Cancer-Preventive Effects

It has been demonstrated that guava leaf extract has anticancer properties. Guava extract can inhibit and even stop the growth of cancer cells, according to research conducted on animals and in test tubes.

This is most likely caused by the abundance of potent antioxidants, which shield cells from the cell-damaging effects of free radicals, one of the primary cancer-causing agents.

Guava leaf oil was found to be four times more effective than some cancer medications in one test-tube trial at halting the growth of cancer cells.

Although the outcomes of tests in test tubes are encouraging, guava leaf extract does not necessarily help treat cancer in humans. Before any conclusions can be drawn, more research is required.

7. Might Strengthen Your Immunity

An increased risk of infections and illnesses is associated with low levels of vitamin C.

As one of the best food sources of vitamin C, guavas are a great method to receive this nutrient.

In fact, one guava has roughly twice as much vitamin C as is recommended daily (RDI). You would receive about twice as much from an orange as this.

A strong immune system is maintained in large part by vitamin C.

Vitamin C has been demonstrated to shorten the length of colds, even if it hasn’t been proven to prevent them.

It also has antibacterial advantages. This indicates that it aids in the elimination of harmful bacteria and viruses that might cause infections.

It’s critical to routinely consume adequate vitamin C through your diet because it can be quickly drained out of your system.

8. Consuming Guavas Could Benefit Your Skin

A guava’s diverse array of vitamins and antioxidants may do wonders for your skin. Its antioxidants might shield your skin from harm, which might delay aging and help avoid wrinkles.

Furthermore, applying guava leaf extract directly to your skin may potentially help treat acne.

Guava leaf extract was found to be effective at killing acne-causing bacteria in a test-tube study, most likely because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities.

To validate the effect of guavas and guava extract in preserving good skin, more research is required.

The Conclusion

Guavas are wonderfully tasty and full with vitamins.

This tropical fruit is a great complement to a balanced diet because it is high in fiber and low in calories.

The advantages of guava leaf extracts, which are consumed as dietary supplements, have also been supported by numerous research.

Guava fruit and leaf extracts may improve your immune system, digestion, and heart health in addition to other advantages.





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How to relieve burning throat: 7 causes




The usual sign of infections and other underlying medical disorders is a burning throat. It may appear on its own or in conjunction with other symptoms.

A burning throat is frequently treatable at home. Recovery depends on getting lots of rest and consuming plenty of fluids.

Discover the potential reasons of a burning throat in this article, and discover when to seek medical attention. We also go over some easy home cures for treating the ailment.

The Causes And Remedies

A burning throat may have a variety of causes, including:

1. Flu and colds

A cold or the flu is a typical reason for a burning throat. These infections, which impact the respiratory, or breathing, system, are brought on by viruses.

The following are typical cold and flu symptoms:

A sore throat

The cough

A blocked nose

Sore muscles



Anyone experiencing severe symptoms of the flu should consult a doctor since it can lead to complications. Breathing difficulties, chest pain, convulsions, and lightheadedness are some of these symptoms.

2. Tonsillitis

At the back of the throat are tissue lumps called tonsils that aid in the defense against bacteria and viruses. An infection called tonsillitis causes the tonsils to enlarge.

Typically, an infection results in:

Discomfort and pain in the throat

Having trouble swallowing

Red or enlarged tonsils



The flu

An ear pain

Tonsillitis typically gets better in 1-2 weeks.

dependable source Home remedies for the condition include lots of rest, drinks, over-the-counter pain relievers, and throat lozenges.


The muscle that connects the esophagus, or food pipe, to the stomach weakens or relaxes, resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Food or stomach acid may rise into the throat and occasionally the back of the mouth when the muscle is not sufficiently tight.


Heartburn is the predominant symptom of GERD. Additional signs include:


Poor breath

Chest pain

Having trouble swallowing

The feeling of burning in the throat

Changing one’s lifestyle as part of treatment frequently entails eliminating rich or acidic items from the diet. Some people need to be medicated or operated on.

4. Strep throat 

A person with strep throat may suffer a fever, a burning sensation in their throat, and discomfort when swallowing.

Several unpleasant sensations are brought on by the bacterial illness known as strep throat.

Strep throat symptoms can appear suddenly and include the following:

A sore throat

Difficulty swallowing

A flu



Red or enlarged tonsils


A throat swab can be used to diagnose strep throat, and a doctor may also recommend antibiotics. During healing, a person should also get lots of rest and hydration.

5. Mono

Mono, also referred to as infectious mononucleosis, is a highly contagious viral infection. Young adults and teenagers are most likely to contract itTrusted Source.

The ailment usually manifests itself 4-6 weeks after first coming into touch with the virus. An early sign of mono is a sore or burning throat.

Additional signs include:


Extreme fatigue

Sore muscles


A rash

Mono usually requires 2-4 weeks to heal, although some people experience symptoms for months. Rest, over-the-counter pain relievers, and drinking lots of fluids are all part of the treatment.

Mono spreads like wildfire. Doctors advise those who have it to avoid kissing and to avoid sharing food, drinks, or toothbrushes.

6. The burning mouth condition

A painful condition is burning mouth syndrome. It hurts and gives the mouth and surrounding area a burning or tingling sensation.

A peculiar aftertaste in the mouth and dry mouth are other symptoms. The lips, tongue, or roof of the mouth may be impacted.

Before making a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome, a doctor may do tests to rule out underlying reasons.

7. Esophagitis

Esophagitis is esophageal inflammation. This inflammation can be brought on by GERD, medication, an infection, or an allergy.

Heartburn, swallowing issues, and a burning throat are typical symptoms.

Esophagitis needs to be treated in order to prevent long-term health problems, although recovery is possible.

Esophagitis with eosinophilia is one variation of the illness. This is a persistent food allergy that results in inflammation of the food pipe. The diagnosis might be difficult, and different professionals may need to collaborate on the treatment strategy.

Eosinophilic esophagitis can be diagnosed by a doctor using a tissue sample from the patient’s throat, a skin prick test, or blood tests.

Eliminating a particular food from the diet that is triggering the reaction frequently alleviates the inflammation.

A Home Remedy

A person may need medical attention, depending on the medical condition causing the burning in the throat.

However, home remedies can be useful for treating symptoms and relieving discomfort when the ailment is the result of a cold, flu, or tonsillitis.

When fighting off a cold or the flu, it’s important to stay hydrated because the body loses fluids through sweating and runny nose. The body can work better and resist viruses and bacteria with the aid of water.

Drinking enough of liquids can aid in preventing the throat from drying out, which can irritate it. Try consuming a beverage made of hot water, honey, and lemon to relieve throat discomfort.

Heat relaxes muscles and helps ease discomfort, so keeping the throat warm can also help with soreness. For warmth, loosely encircle the neck in a scarf.

Resting is important because the body needs time to heal. Reduced activity and time off from work or school can aid in recuperation and stop the spread of infections.

Whenever to visit a doctor

A person should consult their doctor if they experience both chest pain and a burning throat.

Tonsillitis or a cold are typically best treated at home. Medication may be necessary for other conditions.

Consult a doctor if a sore throat persists for longer than two weeks.

A burning throat may be accompanied by more severe symptoms. Adults who exhibit any of the following symptoms in addition to the flu may require emergency medical care:

Chest pain



Not going potty

Severe muscular ache

Extreme fragility

Having trouble breathing


If there are any questions regarding symptoms, persons over the age of 65, children, pregnant women, and those with compromised immune systems should consult a doctor.


In conclusion, tonsillitis, GERD, colds, and other illnesses can all result in a burning sensation in the throat.

Keep the neck wet and use other natural therapies to relieve the soreness.

Consult a doctor for a complete diagnosis and treatment if symptoms are severe or if over-the-counter medications do not sufficiently relieve them within a few weeks.


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College Mascots

Green Tea – Health Benefits





Green Tea – Health Benefits

You know that green tea provides many benefits for us and our health. Chinese knew about the health benefits of green tea long ago and they are using green tea to treat everything, from headaches to stress. We give you 18 good reasons why you should drink this magical herb.

1. Green Tea helps in weight loss

Green tea helps in melting fat, which is very good if we are willing to lose weight. Except burning fat, green tea also boosts our metabolism naturally. It can help us burn up to 70 calories in just one day. That means if we consume green tea regularly we can lose up to 3.5 kg (7.5 lbs) per year.

2. Green Tea reduces blood cholesterol levels

Green tea can help reducing blood cholesterol levels. It also enhances relationship between bad cholesterol and good cholesterol, by reducing bad cholesterol level.

3. Green Tea prevents heart diseases

Green tea helps preventing heart disease and stroke, thus reduces bad cholesterol level.  After a heart attack, green tea speeds up the recovery of the heart cells.

4. Green Tea reduces risk of cancer

Green tea helps reducing the risk of cancer. Antioxidants in green tea are more effective than vitamin C and also are considered to be much better than vitamin E. It helps your body protect cells from damage related to cancer.

5. Green Tea reduces the risk of arthritis

Green tea can reduce and sometimes help against the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. It protects the cartilage by blocking the enzyme that destroys cartilage.

6. Green Tea is good for treating Alzheimer’s

There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but green tea helps in slowing down the process that releases acetylcholine in the brain, leading to Alzheimer’s disease, so it helps improving your memory.

7. Green Tea strengthens our bones

Green tea has high fluoride content. Fluoride helps maintaining bone strength. If you drink green tea every day, it will help you keep your bone density.

8. Green Tea for anti-aging treatment

Green tea helps against aging and helps us look beautiful and younger. This benefit comes due to the antioxidants known as polyphenols which fight against harmful effects of free radicals causing skin aging and wrinkling.

 9. Green Tea prevents obesity


Green tea prevents obesity by stopping glucose turn into fat cells. If you drink green tea and if you practice healthy diet, also if you exercise regularly, you will never be overweight and you will have nice sculpted body and excellent health.


10. Green Tea is good for patients with diabetes

Green tea improves glucose metabolism and prevents increasing of blood sugar levels.

11. Green Tea helps preventing high blood pressure

Drinking green tea helps keeping lower blood pressure by repressing angiotensin, which leads to high blood pressure.

12. Green Tea helps preventing Parkinson’s disease

People who drink green tea reduce the probability of having Parkinson’s disease. Antioxidants in green tea help preventing brain cell damage, which could cause Parkinson’s disease.

13. Green Tea is good for liver diseases

It helps preventing transplantation in people with liver failure. Green tea also destroys harmful free radicals in fatty liver.

14. Green Tea strengthens the immune system

Green tea contains flavonoids and polyphenols which help in strengthening the immune system, making your body become stronger and fight against infections.

15. Green Tea reduces blood sugar

Green tea contains polyphenols and polysaccharides that help us reducing blood sugar.

16. Green tea helps fighting flu and allergies

Green tea contains Vitamin C which helps preventing and also fighting flu. Epigallocatechin gallate which is found in green tea relieves allergies.

17. Green Tea reduces stress and helps against tooth decay

Green tea is rich in L-theanine – amino acid which can help reducing stress. Green tea also destroys viruses and bacteria which cause many dental diseases of teeth.

 18. Green Tea prevents food poisoning

Green tea contains antioxidant catechin capable of destroying bacteria responsible for food poisoning, green tea also kills toxins in our body.



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