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SICKLE CELL ANEMIA: CAUSES, SYMPTOMS,TREATMENT AND PRESENTATION

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 Sickle cell anemia, or sickle cell disease, is an inherited disease that affects red blood cells (erythrocytes). Normally, RBCs are shaped like discs, which gives them the flexibility to move through even the smallest blood vessels. However, with this disease, the RBCs have an abnormal crescent shape resembling a sickle. This makes it sticky, hard, and prone to getting trapped in small vessels, preventing blood from reaching different parts of the body. This can cause pain and tissue damage.


TYPES

There are several types of sickle cell disease. The most common are:


  • sickle cell anemia (SS)Sickle cell hemoglobin disease (SC),


  • sickle beta plus thalassemia,


  • sickle cell hemoglobin disease and


  • Sickle beta zero thalassemias.


Sickle cell anemia (SS): When a child inherits alternate beta-globin genes (the sickle cell gene) from both parents, the child has sickle cell anemia (SS).


Sickle cell disease (SC): Individuals with sickle cell disease (SC) have a slightly different variant in the beta-globin genes that produce both hemoglobin C and hemoglobin S.


Sickle beta plus thalassemia: sickle beta plus thalassemia affects the production of the beta-globin gene. Red blood cells decrease in size due to less beta-protein production. If the hemoglobin S gene is inherited, you will develop hemoglobin S beta-thalassemia Symptoms are not severe.


Sickle-cell hemoglobin: Through research, hemoglobin D, a different variant of the beta-globin gene, has become from bees.

 

HISTORY 

Symptoms related to sickle cell crises were known by various names in Africa, long before they were recognized in the Western Hemisphere. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia can be traced back to 1670 in one Ghanaian family.

It was in 1910 when James Herrick noticed, “freak elongated sickle-shaped red blood cells” in the blood of an anemic black medical student, and then the scientific community learned about it.


Emil’s 1917 discovery of the phenomenon of sickle, in vitro, in family members was the first to suggest the genetic basis of sickle cell. So it was discovered that it is a genetitakedition. Later it was explained that the sickle phenomenon, in the laboratory, was due to oxygen deprivation.

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Huck and Sydenstricker, who performed the detailed pedigree analysis of Huck patients, concluded that the sickle cell phenomenon is inherited as a Mendelian recessive genetic trait.

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA SYMPTOMS

  • Yellow eyes
  • Painful swelling in the hands and feet
  • Frequent episodes of pain
  • stunted growth
  • brain attack
  • anemia (appears pale)

  • dark urine



Statistics For Sickle Cell Anemia

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The main pathology of sickle cell syndrome is a defect in the gene for hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in the bloodstream. African populations typically carry the sickle cell form of this gene, with about 8% of African Americans carrying the vesicular disease gene. In other regions such as India and the Middle East, there are various abnormalities in the hemoglobin gene, causing a similar pattern of disease. This gene is relatively uncommon among the Caucasian population.


Sickle Cell Anemia Causes


The main cause of sickle cell anemia is hemoglobin, which is a component of red cells in the blood. The hemoglobin molecules in each red blood cell carry oxygen from the lungs to the organs and tissues and then return the carbon dioxide for removal by the lungs. In sickle cell anemia, this process is disrupted. After the hemoglobin molecules give up oxygen, some of them may clump together and form long like sticks which become stiff and take on a sickle shape and a genetic mutation also leads to the inheritance of one gene for hemoglobin S from each parent.



Diagnosis and screening of sickle cell anemia


A blood test can check for hemoglobin S – the defective form of hemoglobin that underlies sickle cell anemia.


Sickle cell disease in a fetus can be diagnosed by taking a sample of the fluid surrounding the baby in the mother’s womb (amniotic fluid) to look for the sickle cell gene.


DNA analysis: This test is used to investigate changes and mutations in the genes that produce the components of hemoglobin. It can be performed to determine whether a person has one or two copies of the Hb S mutation or has two different mutations in hemoglobin genes (for example, Hb S and Hb C).   


Treatment and medication in modern trends

  • Intravenous fluid therapy helps red blood cells return to their normal state. If you’re dehydrated, your red blood cells are more likely to distort and take the shape of a sickle.


  • Treating the underlying or associated infection is an important part of crisis management, as the stress of infection can lead to a sickle cell crisis. Infection may also result from complications of the crisis.


  • Blood transfusions improve the transport of oxygen and nutrients as needed. The stacked red cells are removed from the donated blood and given to patients.


  • Supplemental oxygen is given through a mask. It makes breathing easier and improves oxygen levels in the blood.


  • Pain medication such as morphine is used to relieve pain during a sickle crisis.


  • Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) helps increase fetal hemoglobin production. It may reduce the number of blood transfusions.



  • Immunizations can help prevent infection. Patients tend to have lower immunity.

PREVENTION OF SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

  1. Drink plenty of water (hydration).
  2. Avoid extremely cold or hot temperatures.
  3. Avoid places or situations where oxygen is low, such as high altitudes, military training camps, or strenuous exercise.
  4. Get plenty of rest and take frequent breaks during exercise.
  5.  Take hydroxyurea. People taking hydroxyurea should be monitored regularly by a doctor to make sure the right dose is given for the best effect.
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Health

HOW TO USE CHANCA PIEDRA (STONEBREAKER) FOR HEPATITIS B TREATMENT.

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The “stone breaker,” Chanca Piedra, is a common herbal folk treatment for kidney stones. The herb is supposed to aid in the prevention of calcium-oxalate stones. It’s also thought to make existing stones smaller.


Simply look around your surroundings and you will eventually come across this plant, which is both common and powerful.

This herb is extremely beneficial to people who have hepatitis B.



This plant may be found all around and has been proven to be a blessing from God for the healing of numerous diseases and illnesses.


It possesses 25 chemical features and effects, according to research.


It grows 30-60cm tall with numerous oblong and feathery little green leaves and can be found along roadsides, gardens, cultivated regions, and living locations, among other places.


It’s laid out in two rows, with longitudinally ribbed seeds at the bottom.


HEPATITIS B TREATMENT

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In a pot with a tight-fitting lid, boil one handful of the plant with a liter of water for 15 minutes on medium heat.



REMEMBER: If you can see steam or detect an odor, your lid isn’t closed tightly enough, and valuable properties are escaping.

It can be stored in the refrigerator after straining off the leaves and seeds, but it will go bad within 3 days.


You can boil a large quantity and preserve it in the fridge for up to one week.


DOSAGE: Half or one full cup should be taken twice daily on an empty stomach for 30 days.

Children should be given a fraction of the adult dose.

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After 30 days, repeat the test; if there is still evidence of hepatitis in your system, continue therapy for another two weeks and repeat the test.


Hepatitis B traces in your system will vanish totally.




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Health

Your Agonising Back And Joint Pain Is Being Caused By A Common Vitamin Deficiency!

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Your Agonising Back And Joint Pain Is Being Caused By A Common Vitamin Deficiency!

However, there are several occasions where people suffer from excruciating agony as a result of vitamin insufficiency. This is why you must be physically active and fight to relieve your pain rather than accept it.

Vitamin deficiency is a prevalent problem these days, and it is strongly linked to joint discomfort.

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This article will explain how to treat it as well as how to deal with any associated symptoms.

In most cases, joint pain is caused by ageing, but it can also be caused by acidity, food, weight, or job position. A new study discovered that joint discomfort is frequently caused by a lack of vitamin D.

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pain
However, there are several occasions where people suffer from excruciating agony as a result of vitamin insufficient

Furthermore, if this problem is not resolved quickly, the discomfort worsens and may lead to bone problems and arthritis.

As a result, it is critical to understand the signs of vitamin D deficiency in the body:

  • Improper balance
  • Poor sleep
  • Burning and itching sensation in the feet
  • Pain present in the feet and legs

You can also perform a simple test to determine if you are lacking in this vitamin. You must push the chest bone to identify the pressure levels that cause pain. If pressing causes pain nearly immediately, you should absolutely boost your vitamin D intake.

To begin, you should expose yourself to the sun for at least 10-15 minutes per day to increase your vitamin D levels. Being exposed to direct sunlight may be an issue during the winter or if you live in a colder place where the sun is scarce.

As a result, you should be aware that it can also be obtained through meals such as egg yolks, tuna, mushrooms, and mackerel.

You can also choose to supplement, which eliminates the need to alter your typical diet. However, it is advisable to look for a supplement that contains vitamin D3, not D2. D3 is naturally created by the body in response to sunshine exposure.

These supplements may contain up to 5.000 IU of this vitamin, as well as probiotics, which are beneficial to the digestive system.

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Health

6 Best Foods For Prostate Health

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Rich and natural food is not only an excellent support for the overall health, but also for the prostate health.

 


6 Best Foods For Prostate Health

Certain nutrients have the potential to prevent and treat health problems related to the prostate, including prostatitis, benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. In other words, you have a chance to improve the health of the prostate every time you sit down to eat.

Brazil nuts

Of all the different types of nuts, these “natives” originated in South Africa are the richest source of the mineral selenium, which is important for the health of the prostate. Studies show that selenium is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer

Brazil nut tree grows in Brazil, Peru, Bolivia and Colombia. Brazil nut actually developed as seed, not as a nut, because it grows in a hard shell with 8 to 24 seeds / nuts inside.

These seeds are also a rich source of zinc, another mineral that is quite health friendly for the prostate. Be careful when consuming brazil nuts, eat just a few per week, because they are too rich in selenium.

Broccoli

Broccoli is a member of the cauliflower and kale family. Broccoli contains large amounts of phytocomponent sulforaphanes and indoles, both of which have anticancer properties.

Sulforaphane enhances body activity and detoxification and helps eliminating potential elements that might cause cancer. Indole-3-carbinol, which is the main nutrient of broccoli and its other “relatives”, reduces the risk of prostate cancer.

The healthiest way to enjoy this kind of vegetable is to steam cook it for no longer than 5 minutes, and if you cook it longer, broccoli will lose its anticancer properties.

Before you steam cook broccoli, chop it into pieces and let it rest for a few minutes. Season the vegetable with olive oil and fresh garlic to increase its benefits.


Green Tea

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Healing powers of green tea come due to the antioxidant compounds called catechins, a type of polyphenol known as a great destroyer of bacteria and viruses, immune system booster, and an antioxidant which has proven to be excellent in fighting some forms of cancer, including prostate cancer.

Catechins in green tea appear to be strong in fighting pre-cancer symptoms. Studies show that men who consumed catechins every day had a much lower risk of developing prostate cancer, making catechins useful in treating symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy.

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So men who drink at least one cup of tea each day have significantly less chances of getting prostate cancer.

Pomegranate

For a long period of time this unusual fruit and the benefits of its consumption have been the main target of many researches conducted by scientists.

Pomegranates are rich in antioxidants, especially beneficial for prostate health. Studies have shown that pomegranate extract effectively kills cancer cells.

Pomegranate juice significantly reduced the progression of prostate cancer in men who have had surgery or were susceptible to radiation. Pomegranate is delicious, because of its inside and the juice as well; pomegranate is also easily accessible.

Pumpkin

Pumpkin seeds are beneficial in the fight against prostate cancer, especially in men suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy. This health condition involves prostate expanding and usually occurs in men aged 50 and older.

Pumpkin seed oil prevents the spread of cell walls and is rich in carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids. Higher level of carotenoids means reduced risk of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Seeds are also rich in zinc, which prevents cancer development.

Turmeric

Turmeric is a very popular spice, and it grows in the form of a root. Curcumin is the most active ingredient in turmeric and it gives the spice its bitter taste.

Traditionally turmeric is used to fight inflammation, colds and asthma, but researchers also found that turmeric has anticancer properties as well, including the ability to fight prostate cancer and significantly reduce tumor growth.

Turmeric has the potential to prevent the spread of metastases. It causes apoptoze, a process that kills cancer cells triggers.

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