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Mumps: Definition, History, Risk factors and Treatment

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Mumps refers to an infection caused by a type of virus called a paramyxovirus. It is very contagious and spread in saliva, the same way as a cold or flu. This means it can be caught from an infected person coughing, sneezing, etc. It can also be caught from touching infected objects – for example, door handles.


Mumps treatment

Mumps virions are pleomorphic particles ranging from 100 to 600 nm in size, consisting of a helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core surrounded by a host cell–derived lipid envelope. The RNP consists of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecule coated by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNP appears to be a hollow tube with a unit length of approximately 1 mm, a diameter of 17 to 20 nm, and a central core of 5 to 6 nm. The viral host cell–derived envelope contains the viral glycoproteins that project 12 to 15 nm from the virion surface.
Spreading and incubation period of Paramyxovirus
The virus is acquired by respiratory droplets. It replicates in the nasopharynx and regional lymph nodes.
After 12 to 25 days a viremia occurs, which lasts from 3 to 5 days. During the viremia, the virus spreads to multiple tissues, including the meninges, and glands such as the salivary, pancreas, testes, and ovaries.
Inflammation in infected tissues leads to characteristic symptoms of parotitis and aseptic meningitis.
The incubation period of mumps is 14 to 18 days (range, 14 to 25 days).
History

In the 5th century bc, Hippocrates described a mild epidemic illness associated with nonsuppurative swelling near the ears and, variably, with painful swelling of one or both testes. These descriptions of parotitis and orchitis, respectively, are the hallmarks of mumps virus (MuV) infection. The name mumps may derive from an old English verb that means to grimace, grin, or mumble. Hamilton, a physician of the late 18th century, is credited as being the first to associate central nervous system (CNS) involvement with mumps in his description of the neuropathology of a fatal case. Later studies would reveal MuV as a highly neurotropic agent and a leading cause of virus-induced aseptic meningitis and encephalitis.

A number of laboratory investigations suggested that a filterable, transmissible agent was responsible for mumps. However, a viral etiology was not proven until 1935 when Johnson and Goodpasture, using bacteria-free parotid secretions, successfully transmitted the disease between monkeys and children and then back to naïve monkeys, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. The demonstration by Habel145 and Enders108 in 1945 that MuV could be isolated and propagated in embryonated eggs enabled the demonstration of the hemagglutinating, hemolytic, and neuraminidase properties of the virus, leading to the development of an inactivated vaccine in 1946 and to the first live virus vaccine in 1958. The introduction of tissue culture as a practical alternative for the propagation and study of the virus in 1948 was pivotal for advancing studies of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease as well as the molecular biology of the virus, permitting the development of cell-based vaccines.
Epidemiology at worldwide

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The mumps virus is present throughout the world and hence, risk of exposure to mumps outside the United States may be high. In many countries worldwide, mumps remains endemic. The mumps vaccine is in use in only 57% of countries belonging to the World Health Organization (WHO), predominantly those countries with more developed economies.

Worldwide variations in the number of persons who receive the mumps vaccination make it difficult to estimate the number of cases. The incidence varies markedly from region to region.
Causes of mumps

Mumps is due to an infection by the mumps virus. It can be transmitted by respiratory secretions (e.g. saliva) from a person already affected with the condition. When contracting mumps, the virus travels from the respiratory tract to the salivary glands and reproduces, causing the glands to swell.

Examples of how mumps can be spread include:
Sneezing or coughing.
Using the same cutlery and plates as an infected person.
Sharing food and drink with someone who is infected.

An infected person touching their nose or mouth and then passing it onto a surface that someone else may touch.

Individuals infected with the mumps virus are contagious for approximately 15 days (6 days before the symptoms start to show, and up to 9 days after they start).
What are risk factors for contracting mumps?
Failure to vaccinate completely (two separate doses) with exposure to those with mumps
Age: The highest risk of contracting mumps is to a child between 2-12 years of age.
Season: Outbreaks of mumps were most likely during the winter/spring seasons.
Travel to high-risk regions of the world: Africa, general Indian subcontinent region, and Southeast Asia. These areas have a very low rate of immunization.
Weakening immune system: either due to diseases (for example, HIV/AIDS, cancer) or medication (oral steroid use for more than two weeks, chemotherapy).
Born before 1956: Generally, these individuals are believed to have experienced mumps infection in childhood. However, if they did not, they are at risk for adult mumps disease.
Signs & Symptoms of Mumps

The most common symptoms include:
Fever
Headache
Muscle aches
Tiredness
Loss of appetite
Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection. Some people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and often they do not know they have the disease. Most people with mumps recover completely in a few weeks.
Notify your healthcare provider if you have any of the following:
Swelling that lasts longer than seven days
Headaches not relieved with medication
Ongoing fever
Nausea and vomiting
Swelling accompanied by redness or warmth
Decreased hearing
Neck stiffness
Pain or swelling in testicles (male)
Abdominal Pain
Complications of mumps

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Complications are more frequent in adults than children, the most common are:
Orchitis – testicles swell and become painful, this happens to 1 in 5 adult males with mumps. The swelling normally goes down within 1 week; tenderness can last longer than that. This rarely results in infertility.
Oophoritis – ovaries swell and are painful; it occurs in 1 in 20 adult females. The swelling will subside as the immune system fights off the virus. This rarely results in infertility.
Viral meningitis – this is one of the rarest of the common complications. It happens when the virus spreads through the bloodstream and infects the body’s central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
Inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis) – pain will be experienced in the upper abdomen; this occurs in 1 out of 20 cases and is usually mild.
Electrocardiogram changes compatible with myocarditis are seen in 3%–15% of patients with mumps, but symptomatic involvement is rare. Complete recovery is the rule, but deaths have been reported.

If a pregnant woman contracts mumps in the first 12-16 weeks of her pregnancy, she will have a slightly increased risk of miscarriage.

Rarer complications of mumps include:
Encephalitis – the brain swells causing neurological issues. In some cases, this can be fatal. This is a very rare risk factor and affects just 1 in 6,000 cases.
Hearing loss – this is the rarest of all the complications affecting just 1 in 15,000.
Other less common complications of mumps include arthralgia, arthritis, and nephritis.
Tests and diagnosis of mumps

Normally, mumps can be diagnosed by its symptoms alone, especially by examining the facial swelling. A doctor might also:

Check inside the mouth to see the position of the tonsils – when infected with mumps, a person’s tonsils can get pushed to the side.
Take the patient’s temperature.
Take a sample of blood, urine, or saliva to confirm diagnosis.
Take a sample of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) from the spine for testing – this is usually only in severe cases.



Treatment

Because mumps is viral, antibiotics cannot be used to treat it, and at present, there are no anti-viral medications that can treat mumps.

Current treatment can only help relieve the symptoms until the infection has run its course and the body has built up an immunity, much like a cold. In most cases, people recover from mumps within 2 weeks.

Due to the viral nature of mumps, treatment focuses on decreasing symptoms.
Eat soft, bland foods that do not require much chewing. Examples include oatmeal, bananas, pasta, potatoes, eggs, gelatin, cooked vegetables, applesauce and tender cooked meats.
Avoid tart drinks and sour foods since they can irritate the swelling and cause pain. Examples of these include orange juice, salad dressing, and pickles.
Apply heat or cold packs to the cheeks. Some people find warm compresses to be more soothing while others from cold compresses provide more pain relief.
Use over-the-counter medication such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever and pain.
Get extra rest and stay well hydrated with plenty of fluids such as water, Sprite, bouillon, milk and popsicles.
If orchitis develops, treat this with bed rest, ice packs, ibuprofen and provide support to inflamed testicles by wearing tight fitting underwear or an athletic supporter.



Prevention
Immunisation given on-time is the best method of preventing mumps. The measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR) is given as part of the immunisation schedule at 15 months and 4 years of age. No mumps-only vaccine is available in New Zealand.
People with mumps are excluded from early childhood education, school and work until nine days after the appearance of swollen salivary glands to protect others from infection.
Contacts of mumps cases, who are not immune to mumps e.g. those who are unvaccinated, are excluded from early childhood education, school and work until 25 days after the appearance of swollen glands in the last case they were in contact with.
Anyone born after the 1990s would most probably have been given the MMR vaccine but, if unsure, it is always good to check with a doctor.
MMR vaccine side effects

Most people given the MMR vaccine do not suffer side effects, and the disease itself cannot be contracted from the vaccine. A small percentage might develop a rash or fever and possibly aches in their joints.



Preventing the spread of mumps

There are a number of precautions that help prevent the spread of infection; these are:
Washing hands with water and soap frequently.
Covering the nose and mouth with a tissue when sneezing or coughing.


Keep your fingers crossed for more health tips
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Eight Health Advantages of Guava Fruit and Leaves

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HEALTH BENEFITS OF GUAVA FRUITS AND LEAVES

Tropical plants from Central America are the source of guavas.

Their fruits are oval in shape, with skin that is either pale green or yellow, and the seeds are edible. Additionally, guava leaf extract is utilized as a supplement, and the leaves are used to make a herbal tea.

Guava fruits are incredibly high in fiber, vitamin C, potassium, and antioxidants. They have numerous health advantages thanks to this exceptional nutrient content.

style="text-align: left;">Here are 8 guava fruit and leaf health advantages supported by scientific research.

1. Might Aid in Blood Sugar Control

Guava may help you better regulate your blood sugar, according to some data.

Guava leaf extract reduced blood sugar levels, long-term blood sugar control, and insulin resistance, according to several test-tube and animal investigations.

For individuals at risk or who have diabetes, this is good news.

A few human experiments have also produced some striking outcomes.

A 19-person study found that drinking guava leaf tea after a meal reduced blood sugar levels. The results persisted for up to two hours.

In a second trial, 20 participants with type 2 diabetes who drank guava leaf tea after eating had their blood sugar levels drop by more than 10%.

2. Could Improve Heart Health

Guavas have a lot of potential benefits for heart health.

Many scientists think that the abundant vitamins and antioxidants in guava leaves may help shield your heart from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Guavas’ greater potassium and soluble fiber content are also believed to benefit heart health.

Guava leaf extract has also been associated with reduced blood pressure, a rise in “good” HDL cholesterol, and a drop in “bad” LDL cholesterol.

Taking guava leaf extract may have beneficial effects because high blood pressure and high levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased risks of heart disease and stroke.

Additionally, the fruit might be advantageous for heart health as well.

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Eating ripe guava before meals resulted in an overall drop in blood pressure of 8 to 9 points, a fall in total cholesterol of 9.9 percent, and an increase in “good” HDL cholesterol of 8 percent, according to a 12-week trial of 120 participants.

Numerous other investigations have observed this same impact.


3. Could ease uncomfortable menstrual symptoms

Dysmenorrhea, which includes uncomfortable menstrual symptoms such stomach cramps, is a common occurrence among women.

There is some proof, nevertheless, that guava leaf extract may lessen the severity of menstrual cramps’ discomfort.

According to a study involving 197 women who had severe symptoms, ingesting 6 mg of guava leaf extract daily lessened the severity of the pain. It gave the impression of being much more potent than certain painkillers.

Another theory suggests that guava leaf extract can ease menstrual cramps.

4. Might Be Beneficial For Your Digestive System

A great source of dietary fiber is guavas.

Consequently, increasing your guava intake may promote regular bowel motions and ward off constipation.

One guava can give you 12% of the daily required amount of fiber.

Guava leaf extract may also be advantageous to intestinal health. According to studies, it might lessen the severity and duration of diarrhea.

Several research have also demonstrated the antibacterial properties of guava leaf extract. This indicates that it has the ability to eliminate potentially dangerous intestinal microorganisms that can result in diarrhea.

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5. Can Help You Lose Weight

Guavas are a healthy fruit for shedding pounds.

Fruits are a full, low-calorie snack because they have only 37 calories per fruit and provide 12 percent of the daily necessary fiber intake.

They are nutrient-dense, unlike some other low-calorie snacks, so you aren’t missing out on any essential vitamins or minerals.

6. Might Have Cancer-Preventive Effects

It has been demonstrated that guava leaf extract has anticancer properties. Guava extract can inhibit and even stop the growth of cancer cells, according to research conducted on animals and in test tubes.

This is most likely caused by the abundance of potent antioxidants, which shield cells from the cell-damaging effects of free radicals, one of the primary cancer-causing agents.

Guava leaf oil was found to be four times more effective than some cancer medications in one test-tube trial at halting the growth of cancer cells.

Although the outcomes of tests in test tubes are encouraging, guava leaf extract does not necessarily help treat cancer in humans. Before any conclusions can be drawn, more research is required.


7. Might Strengthen Your Immunity

An increased risk of infections and illnesses is associated with low levels of vitamin C.

As one of the best food sources of vitamin C, guavas are a great method to receive this nutrient.

In fact, one guava has roughly twice as much vitamin C as is recommended daily (RDI). You would receive about twice as much from an orange as this.

A strong immune system is maintained in large part by vitamin C.

Vitamin C has been demonstrated to shorten the length of colds, even if it hasn’t been proven to prevent them.

It also has antibacterial advantages. This indicates that it aids in the elimination of harmful bacteria and viruses that might cause infections.

It’s critical to routinely consume adequate vitamin C through your diet because it can be quickly drained out of your system.

8. Consuming Guavas Could Benefit Your Skin

A guava’s diverse array of vitamins and antioxidants may do wonders for your skin. Its antioxidants might shield your skin from harm, which might delay aging and help avoid wrinkles.

Furthermore, applying guava leaf extract directly to your skin may potentially help treat acne.

Guava leaf extract was found to be effective at killing acne-causing bacteria in a test-tube study, most likely because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities.

To validate the effect of guavas and guava extract in preserving good skin, more research is required.

The Conclusion

Guavas are wonderfully tasty and full with vitamins.

This tropical fruit is a great complement to a balanced diet because it is high in fiber and low in calories.

The advantages of guava leaf extracts, which are consumed as dietary supplements, have also been supported by numerous research.

Guava fruit and leaf extracts may improve your immune system, digestion, and heart health in addition to other advantages.

 

ALSO READ: HEALTH BENEFITS OF COCONUT WATER

                       INCREDIBLE HEALTH BENEFITS OF BITTER KOLA

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How to relieve burning throat: 7 causes

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The usual sign of infections and other underlying medical disorders is a burning throat. It may appear on its own or in conjunction with other symptoms.

A burning throat is frequently treatable at home. Recovery depends on getting lots of rest and consuming plenty of fluids.

Discover the potential reasons of a burning throat in this article, and discover when to seek medical attention. We also go over some easy home cures for treating the ailment.

The Causes And Remedies

A burning throat may have a variety of causes, including:

1. Flu and colds

A cold or the flu is a typical reason for a burning throat. These infections, which impact the respiratory, or breathing, system, are brought on by viruses.

The following are typical cold and flu symptoms:

A sore throat

The cough

A blocked nose

Sore muscles

Tiredness

Headaches

Anyone experiencing severe symptoms of the flu should consult a doctor since it can lead to complications. Breathing difficulties, chest pain, convulsions, and lightheadedness are some of these symptoms.

2. Tonsillitis

At the back of the throat are tissue lumps called tonsils that aid in the defense against bacteria and viruses. An infection called tonsillitis causes the tonsils to enlarge.

Typically, an infection results in:

Discomfort and pain in the throat

Having trouble swallowing

Red or enlarged tonsils

Headaches

Tiredness

The flu

An ear pain

Tonsillitis typically gets better in 1-2 weeks.

dependable source Home remedies for the condition include lots of rest, drinks, over-the-counter pain relievers, and throat lozenges.

3. GERD

The muscle that connects the esophagus, or food pipe, to the stomach weakens or relaxes, resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Food or stomach acid may rise into the throat and occasionally the back of the mouth when the muscle is not sufficiently tight.

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Heartburn is the predominant symptom of GERD. Additional signs include:

Nausea

Poor breath

Chest pain

Having trouble swallowing

The feeling of burning in the throat

Changing one’s lifestyle as part of treatment frequently entails eliminating rich or acidic items from the diet. Some people need to be medicated or operated on.

4. Strep throat 

A person with strep throat may suffer a fever, a burning sensation in their throat, and discomfort when swallowing.

Several unpleasant sensations are brought on by the bacterial illness known as strep throat.

Strep throat symptoms can appear suddenly and include the following:

A sore throat

Difficulty swallowing

A flu

Headaches

Nausea

Red or enlarged tonsils

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A throat swab can be used to diagnose strep throat, and a doctor may also recommend antibiotics. During healing, a person should also get lots of rest and hydration.

5. Mono

Mono, also referred to as infectious mononucleosis, is a highly contagious viral infection. Young adults and teenagers are most likely to contract itTrusted Source.

The ailment usually manifests itself 4-6 weeks after first coming into touch with the virus. An early sign of mono is a sore or burning throat.

Additional signs include:

Fever

Extreme fatigue

Sore muscles

Headaches

A rash

Mono usually requires 2-4 weeks to heal, although some people experience symptoms for months. Rest, over-the-counter pain relievers, and drinking lots of fluids are all part of the treatment.

Mono spreads like wildfire. Doctors advise those who have it to avoid kissing and to avoid sharing food, drinks, or toothbrushes.

6. The burning mouth condition

A painful condition is burning mouth syndrome. It hurts and gives the mouth and surrounding area a burning or tingling sensation.

A peculiar aftertaste in the mouth and dry mouth are other symptoms. The lips, tongue, or roof of the mouth may be impacted.

Before making a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome, a doctor may do tests to rule out underlying reasons.

7. Esophagitis

Esophagitis is esophageal inflammation. This inflammation can be brought on by GERD, medication, an infection, or an allergy.

Heartburn, swallowing issues, and a burning throat are typical symptoms.

Esophagitis needs to be treated in order to prevent long-term health problems, although recovery is possible.

Esophagitis with eosinophilia is one variation of the illness. This is a persistent food allergy that results in inflammation of the food pipe. The diagnosis might be difficult, and different professionals may need to collaborate on the treatment strategy.

Eosinophilic esophagitis can be diagnosed by a doctor using a tissue sample from the patient’s throat, a skin prick test, or blood tests.

Eliminating a particular food from the diet that is triggering the reaction frequently alleviates the inflammation.

A Home Remedy

A person may need medical attention, depending on the medical condition causing the burning in the throat.

However, home remedies can be useful for treating symptoms and relieving discomfort when the ailment is the result of a cold, flu, or tonsillitis.

When fighting off a cold or the flu, it’s important to stay hydrated because the body loses fluids through sweating and runny nose. The body can work better and resist viruses and bacteria with the aid of water.

Drinking enough of liquids can aid in preventing the throat from drying out, which can irritate it. Try consuming a beverage made of hot water, honey, and lemon to relieve throat discomfort.

Heat relaxes muscles and helps ease discomfort, so keeping the throat warm can also help with soreness. For warmth, loosely encircle the neck in a scarf.

Resting is important because the body needs time to heal. Reduced activity and time off from work or school can aid in recuperation and stop the spread of infections.

Whenever to visit a doctor

A person should consult their doctor if they experience both chest pain and a burning throat.

Tonsillitis or a cold are typically best treated at home. Medication may be necessary for other conditions.

Consult a doctor if a sore throat persists for longer than two weeks.

A burning throat may be accompanied by more severe symptoms. Adults who exhibit any of the following symptoms in addition to the flu may require emergency medical care:

Chest pain

Dizziness

Confusion

Not going potty

Severe muscular ache

Extreme fragility

Having trouble breathing

Seizures

If there are any questions regarding symptoms, persons over the age of 65, children, pregnant women, and those with compromised immune systems should consult a doctor.

Conclusion

In conclusion, tonsillitis, GERD, colds, and other illnesses can all result in a burning sensation in the throat.

Keep the neck wet and use other natural therapies to relieve the soreness.

Consult a doctor for a complete diagnosis and treatment if symptoms are severe or if over-the-counter medications do not sufficiently relieve them within a few weeks.

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Green Tea – Health Benefits

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Green Tea – Health Benefits

You know that green tea provides many benefits for us and our health. Chinese knew about the health benefits of green tea long ago and they are using green tea to treat everything, from headaches to stress. We give you 18 good reasons why you should drink this magical herb.

1. Green Tea helps in weight loss

Green tea helps in melting fat, which is very good if we are willing to lose weight. Except burning fat, green tea also boosts our metabolism naturally. It can help us burn up to 70 calories in just one day. That means if we consume green tea regularly we can lose up to 3.5 kg (7.5 lbs) per year.

2. Green Tea reduces blood cholesterol levels

Green tea can help reducing blood cholesterol levels. It also enhances relationship between bad cholesterol and good cholesterol, by reducing bad cholesterol level.

3. Green Tea prevents heart diseases

Green tea helps preventing heart disease and stroke, thus reduces bad cholesterol level.  After a heart attack, green tea speeds up the recovery of the heart cells.

4. Green Tea reduces risk of cancer

Green tea helps reducing the risk of cancer. Antioxidants in green tea are more effective than vitamin C and also are considered to be much better than vitamin E. It helps your body protect cells from damage related to cancer.

5. Green Tea reduces the risk of arthritis

Green tea can reduce and sometimes help against the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. It protects the cartilage by blocking the enzyme that destroys cartilage.

6. Green Tea is good for treating Alzheimer’s

There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but green tea helps in slowing down the process that releases acetylcholine in the brain, leading to Alzheimer’s disease, so it helps improving your memory.

7. Green Tea strengthens our bones

Green tea has high fluoride content. Fluoride helps maintaining bone strength. If you drink green tea every day, it will help you keep your bone density.

8. Green Tea for anti-aging treatment

Green tea helps against aging and helps us look beautiful and younger. This benefit comes due to the antioxidants known as polyphenols which fight against harmful effects of free radicals causing skin aging and wrinkling.

 9. Green Tea prevents obesity

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Green tea prevents obesity by stopping glucose turn into fat cells. If you drink green tea and if you practice healthy diet, also if you exercise regularly, you will never be overweight and you will have nice sculpted body and excellent health.

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10. Green Tea is good for patients with diabetes

Green tea improves glucose metabolism and prevents increasing of blood sugar levels.

11. Green Tea helps preventing high blood pressure

Drinking green tea helps keeping lower blood pressure by repressing angiotensin, which leads to high blood pressure.

12. Green Tea helps preventing Parkinson’s disease

People who drink green tea reduce the probability of having Parkinson’s disease. Antioxidants in green tea help preventing brain cell damage, which could cause Parkinson’s disease.

13. Green Tea is good for liver diseases

It helps preventing transplantation in people with liver failure. Green tea also destroys harmful free radicals in fatty liver.

14. Green Tea strengthens the immune system

Green tea contains flavonoids and polyphenols which help in strengthening the immune system, making your body become stronger and fight against infections.

15. Green Tea reduces blood sugar

Green tea contains polyphenols and polysaccharides that help us reducing blood sugar.

16. Green tea helps fighting flu and allergies

Green tea contains Vitamin C which helps preventing and also fighting flu. Epigallocatechin gallate which is found in green tea relieves allergies.

17. Green Tea reduces stress and helps against tooth decay

Green tea is rich in L-theanine – amino acid which can help reducing stress. Green tea also destroys viruses and bacteria which cause many dental diseases of teeth.

 18. Green Tea prevents food poisoning

Green tea contains antioxidant catechin capable of destroying bacteria responsible for food poisoning, green tea also kills toxins in our body.

 

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