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Leukemia: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention Definition

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Leukemia is a malignancy (cancer) of blood cells. In leukemia, abnormal blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Usually, leukemia involves the production of abnormal white blood cells the cells responsible for fighting infection. However, the abnormal cells in leukemia do not function in the same way as normal white blood cells.

The leukemia cells continue to grow and divide, eventually crowding out the normal blood cells. The end result is that it becomes difficult for the body to fight infections, control bleeding, and transport oxygen.


Chronic and acute leukemia

There are several stages of maturation in a white blood cell’s lifespan. Acute leukemia is a rapidly progressing disease that results in the accumulation of immature, useless cells in the marrow and blood. They are squeezed out of the bone marrow too early and are not functional. Chronic progresses more slowly and allows more mature, useful cells to be made. In other words, acute leukemia crowds out the good cells more quickly than chronic leukemia.

Lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia

Leukemias are also subdivided into the type of affected blood cell. If the cancerous transformation occurs in the type of marrow that makes lymphocytes, the disease is called lymphocytic leukemia. A lymphocyte is a kind of white blood cell inside the vertebrae immune system. If the cancerous change occurs in the type of marrow cells that go on to produce red blood cells, other types of white cells, and platelets, the disease is called myelogenous leukemia.


Types of leukemia

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

Also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia – this is the most common type of leukemia among young children, although adults can get it as well, especially those over the age of 65. The 5-year survival rate is greater than 85 percent among children.

The following are subtypes of ALL: precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Burkitt’s leukemia, and acute biphenotypic leukemia.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

This is most common among adults over 55, although younger adults can get it as well. It is the most common type of leukemia in adulthood. CLL hardly ever affects children. The majority of patients with CLL are men, over 60 percent. The 5 year survival rate of treated CLL patients is 82 percent. Experts say CLL is incurable. A more aggressive form of CLL is B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

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Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

AML is more common among adults than children, and affects males significantly more often than females. Patients are treated with chemotherapy. In children diagnosed with AML, the 5-year survival rate is 60-70 percent, though the overall survival rate is 26.6 percent.

Under the WHO classification system, there are six main groups of AML: AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities, AML with myelodysplasia-related features, therapy-related AML and MDS, AML not otherwise specified, myeloid sarcoma, and myeloid proliferations related to Down Sydrome.

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

The vast majority of patients are adults. According to the National Cancer Institute, the 5-year survival rate is 65.1 percent. However, many people with CML have a gene mutation that responds to targeted cancer therapy, called Gleevec. Gleevec (imatinib) is commonly used to treat CML, as well as some other drugs. For those people whose cancer is susceptible to Gleevec, their survival rate can be as high as 90 percent. Chronic monocytic leukemia is a subtype of CML.
Risk factors

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Some factors put certain people at higher risk of developing leukemia. The following are either known or suspected factors:
Artificial ionizing radiation
Viruses – HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
Benzene and some petrochemicals
Alkylating chemotherapy agents used in previous cancers
Maternal fetal transmission (rare)
Hair dyes
Smoking

Genetic predisposition – some studies researching family history and looking at twins have indicated that some people have a higher risk of developing leukemia because of a single gene or multiple genes.

Down syndrome – people with Down syndrome have a significantly higher risk of developing leukemia, compared with people who do not have Down syndrome. Experts say that because of this, people with certain chromosomal abnormalities may have a higher risk.

Electromagnetic energy – studies indicate there is not enough evidence to show that ELF magnetic (not electric) fields that exist currently might cause leukemia. The IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) says that studies which indicate there is a risk tend to be biased and unreliable.



Causes

For most people with leukemia, there’s no way to identify what causes it. In some cases, though, specific risk factors can be identified:
Previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy
Exposure to high doses of radiation or to benzene (found in unleaded gasoline, tobacco smoke, chemical production facilities)
Family history
Genetic abnormality, such as an abnormality on chromosome 22 (also known as the Philadelphia chromosome)
Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and Fanconi anemia

All forms of cancer that can spread within the body (malignant), including leukemia, are thought to be due to genetic abnormalities (mutations). In leukemia, the damage occurs in the bone marrow stem cells. These special cells help to manufacture all the other cells in the blood. With this condition the production of these cells is out of control.



Symptoms

Some signs or symptoms of leukemia are similar to other more common and less severe illnesses. Specific blood tests and bone marrow tests are needed to make a diagnosis. Signs and symptoms vary based on the type of leukemia.

For acute leukemia, they include:
Tiredness or no energy
Shortness of breath during physical activity
Pale skin
Mild fever or night sweats
Slow healing of cuts and excess bleeding
Black-and-blue marks (bruises) for no clear reason
Pinhead-size red spots under the skin
Aches in bones or joints (for example, knees, hips or shoulders)
Low white cell counts, especially monocytes or neutrophils.

People with CLL or CML may not have any symptoms. Some patients learn they have CLL or CML after a blood test as part of a regular checkup.

Sometimes, a person with CLL may notice enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin. The person may feel tired or short of breath (from anemia) or have frequent infections if the CLL is more severe. In these cases, a blood test may show an increase in the lymphocyte count.

CML signs and symptoms tend to develop slowly. People with CML may feel tired and short of breath while doing everyday activities. They may also have an enlarged spleen (leading to a “dragging” feeling on the upper left side of the belly), night sweats and weight loss.



Diagnosis and test

Doctors may find chronic leukemia in a routine blood test, before symptoms begin. If this happens, or if you have signs or symptoms that suggest leukemia, you may undergo the following diagnostic exams:

Physical exam: Your doctor will look for physical signs of leukemia, such as pale skin from anemia, swelling of your lymph nodes, and enlargement of your liver and spleen.

Blood tests: By looking at a sample of your blood, your doctor can determine if you have abnormal levels of white blood cells or platelets which may suggest leukemia.

Bone marrow test: Your doctor may recommend a procedure to remove a sample of bone marrow from your hipbone. The bone marrow is removed using a long, thin needle. The sample is sent to a laboratory to look for leukemia cells. Specialized tests of your leukemia cells may reveal certain characteristics that are used to determine your treatment options.

You may undergo additional tests to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the type of leukemia and its extent in your body. Certain types of leukemia are classified into stages, indicating the severity of the disease. Your leukemia’s stage helps your doctor determine a treatment plan.



Treatment and medications

Leukemia is usually treated by a hematologist-oncologist. These are doctors who specialize in blood disorders and cancer. The treatment depends on the type and stage of the cancer. Some forms of leukemia grow slowly and don’t need immediate treatment. However, treatment for leukemia usually involves one or more of the following:

/>Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill leukemia cells. Depending on the type of leukemia, you may take either a single drug or a combination of different drugs.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to damage leukemia cells and inhibit their growth. Radiation can be applied to a specific area or to your entire body.
Stem cell transplantation replaces diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow, either your own (autologous transplantation) or from a donor (allologous transplantation). This procedure is also called a bone marrow transplant.
Biological or immune therapy uses treatments that help your immune system recognize and attack cancer cells.
Targeted therapy uses medications that take advantage of vulnerabilities in cancer cells. For example, imatinib (Gleevec) is a targeted drug that is commonly used against CML.
Prevention

There is no known way to prevent most types of leukemia.

Some types of leukemia may be prevented by avoiding high doses of radiation, exposure to the chemical benzene, smoking and other tobacco use, or certain types of chemotherapy used to treat other types of cancer.

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Eight Health Advantages of Guava Fruit and Leaves

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HEALTH BENEFITS OF GUAVA FRUITS AND LEAVES

Tropical plants from Central America are the source of guavas.

Their fruits are oval in shape, with skin that is either pale green or yellow, and the seeds are edible. Additionally, guava leaf extract is utilized as a supplement, and the leaves are used to make a herbal tea.

Guava fruits are incredibly high in fiber, vitamin C, potassium, and antioxidants. They have numerous health advantages thanks to this exceptional nutrient content.

style="text-align: left;">Here are 8 guava fruit and leaf health advantages supported by scientific research.

1. Might Aid in Blood Sugar Control

Guava may help you better regulate your blood sugar, according to some data.

Guava leaf extract reduced blood sugar levels, long-term blood sugar control, and insulin resistance, according to several test-tube and animal investigations.

For individuals at risk or who have diabetes, this is good news.

A few human experiments have also produced some striking outcomes.

A 19-person study found that drinking guava leaf tea after a meal reduced blood sugar levels. The results persisted for up to two hours.

In a second trial, 20 participants with type 2 diabetes who drank guava leaf tea after eating had their blood sugar levels drop by more than 10%.

2. Could Improve Heart Health

Guavas have a lot of potential benefits for heart health.

Many scientists think that the abundant vitamins and antioxidants in guava leaves may help shield your heart from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

Guavas’ greater potassium and soluble fiber content are also believed to benefit heart health.

Guava leaf extract has also been associated with reduced blood pressure, a rise in “good” HDL cholesterol, and a drop in “bad” LDL cholesterol.

Taking guava leaf extract may have beneficial effects because high blood pressure and high levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased risks of heart disease and stroke.

Additionally, the fruit might be advantageous for heart health as well.

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Eating ripe guava before meals resulted in an overall drop in blood pressure of 8 to 9 points, a fall in total cholesterol of 9.9 percent, and an increase in “good” HDL cholesterol of 8 percent, according to a 12-week trial of 120 participants.

Numerous other investigations have observed this same impact.


3. Could ease uncomfortable menstrual symptoms

Dysmenorrhea, which includes uncomfortable menstrual symptoms such stomach cramps, is a common occurrence among women.

There is some proof, nevertheless, that guava leaf extract may lessen the severity of menstrual cramps’ discomfort.

According to a study involving 197 women who had severe symptoms, ingesting 6 mg of guava leaf extract daily lessened the severity of the pain. It gave the impression of being much more potent than certain painkillers.

Another theory suggests that guava leaf extract can ease menstrual cramps.

4. Might Be Beneficial For Your Digestive System

A great source of dietary fiber is guavas.

Consequently, increasing your guava intake may promote regular bowel motions and ward off constipation.

One guava can give you 12% of the daily required amount of fiber.

Guava leaf extract may also be advantageous to intestinal health. According to studies, it might lessen the severity and duration of diarrhea.

Several research have also demonstrated the antibacterial properties of guava leaf extract. This indicates that it has the ability to eliminate potentially dangerous intestinal microorganisms that can result in diarrhea.

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5. Can Help You Lose Weight

Guavas are a healthy fruit for shedding pounds.

Fruits are a full, low-calorie snack because they have only 37 calories per fruit and provide 12 percent of the daily necessary fiber intake.

They are nutrient-dense, unlike some other low-calorie snacks, so you aren’t missing out on any essential vitamins or minerals.

6. Might Have Cancer-Preventive Effects

It has been demonstrated that guava leaf extract has anticancer properties. Guava extract can inhibit and even stop the growth of cancer cells, according to research conducted on animals and in test tubes.

This is most likely caused by the abundance of potent antioxidants, which shield cells from the cell-damaging effects of free radicals, one of the primary cancer-causing agents.

Guava leaf oil was found to be four times more effective than some cancer medications in one test-tube trial at halting the growth of cancer cells.

Although the outcomes of tests in test tubes are encouraging, guava leaf extract does not necessarily help treat cancer in humans. Before any conclusions can be drawn, more research is required.


7. Might Strengthen Your Immunity

An increased risk of infections and illnesses is associated with low levels of vitamin C.

As one of the best food sources of vitamin C, guavas are a great method to receive this nutrient.

In fact, one guava has roughly twice as much vitamin C as is recommended daily (RDI). You would receive about twice as much from an orange as this.

A strong immune system is maintained in large part by vitamin C.

Vitamin C has been demonstrated to shorten the length of colds, even if it hasn’t been proven to prevent them.

It also has antibacterial advantages. This indicates that it aids in the elimination of harmful bacteria and viruses that might cause infections.

It’s critical to routinely consume adequate vitamin C through your diet because it can be quickly drained out of your system.

8. Consuming Guavas Could Benefit Your Skin

A guava’s diverse array of vitamins and antioxidants may do wonders for your skin. Its antioxidants might shield your skin from harm, which might delay aging and help avoid wrinkles.

Furthermore, applying guava leaf extract directly to your skin may potentially help treat acne.

Guava leaf extract was found to be effective at killing acne-causing bacteria in a test-tube study, most likely because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities.

To validate the effect of guavas and guava extract in preserving good skin, more research is required.

The Conclusion

Guavas are wonderfully tasty and full with vitamins.

This tropical fruit is a great complement to a balanced diet because it is high in fiber and low in calories.

The advantages of guava leaf extracts, which are consumed as dietary supplements, have also been supported by numerous research.

Guava fruit and leaf extracts may improve your immune system, digestion, and heart health in addition to other advantages.

 

ALSO READ: HEALTH BENEFITS OF COCONUT WATER

                       INCREDIBLE HEALTH BENEFITS OF BITTER KOLA

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How to relieve burning throat: 7 causes

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The usual sign of infections and other underlying medical disorders is a burning throat. It may appear on its own or in conjunction with other symptoms.

A burning throat is frequently treatable at home. Recovery depends on getting lots of rest and consuming plenty of fluids.

Discover the potential reasons of a burning throat in this article, and discover when to seek medical attention. We also go over some easy home cures for treating the ailment.

The Causes And Remedies

A burning throat may have a variety of causes, including:

1. Flu and colds

A cold or the flu is a typical reason for a burning throat. These infections, which impact the respiratory, or breathing, system, are brought on by viruses.

The following are typical cold and flu symptoms:

A sore throat

The cough

A blocked nose

Sore muscles

Tiredness

Headaches

Anyone experiencing severe symptoms of the flu should consult a doctor since it can lead to complications. Breathing difficulties, chest pain, convulsions, and lightheadedness are some of these symptoms.

2. Tonsillitis

At the back of the throat are tissue lumps called tonsils that aid in the defense against bacteria and viruses. An infection called tonsillitis causes the tonsils to enlarge.

Typically, an infection results in:

Discomfort and pain in the throat

Having trouble swallowing

Red or enlarged tonsils

Headaches

Tiredness

The flu

An ear pain

Tonsillitis typically gets better in 1-2 weeks.

dependable source Home remedies for the condition include lots of rest, drinks, over-the-counter pain relievers, and throat lozenges.

3. GERD

The muscle that connects the esophagus, or food pipe, to the stomach weakens or relaxes, resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Food or stomach acid may rise into the throat and occasionally the back of the mouth when the muscle is not sufficiently tight.

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Heartburn is the predominant symptom of GERD. Additional signs include:

Nausea

Poor breath

Chest pain

Having trouble swallowing

The feeling of burning in the throat

Changing one’s lifestyle as part of treatment frequently entails eliminating rich or acidic items from the diet. Some people need to be medicated or operated on.

4. Strep throat 

A person with strep throat may suffer a fever, a burning sensation in their throat, and discomfort when swallowing.

Several unpleasant sensations are brought on by the bacterial illness known as strep throat.

Strep throat symptoms can appear suddenly and include the following:

A sore throat

Difficulty swallowing

A flu

Headaches

Nausea

Red or enlarged tonsils

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A throat swab can be used to diagnose strep throat, and a doctor may also recommend antibiotics. During healing, a person should also get lots of rest and hydration.

5. Mono

Mono, also referred to as infectious mononucleosis, is a highly contagious viral infection. Young adults and teenagers are most likely to contract itTrusted Source.

The ailment usually manifests itself 4-6 weeks after first coming into touch with the virus. An early sign of mono is a sore or burning throat.

Additional signs include:

Fever

Extreme fatigue

Sore muscles

Headaches

A rash

Mono usually requires 2-4 weeks to heal, although some people experience symptoms for months. Rest, over-the-counter pain relievers, and drinking lots of fluids are all part of the treatment.

Mono spreads like wildfire. Doctors advise those who have it to avoid kissing and to avoid sharing food, drinks, or toothbrushes.

6. The burning mouth condition

A painful condition is burning mouth syndrome. It hurts and gives the mouth and surrounding area a burning or tingling sensation.

A peculiar aftertaste in the mouth and dry mouth are other symptoms. The lips, tongue, or roof of the mouth may be impacted.

Before making a diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome, a doctor may do tests to rule out underlying reasons.

7. Esophagitis

Esophagitis is esophageal inflammation. This inflammation can be brought on by GERD, medication, an infection, or an allergy.

Heartburn, swallowing issues, and a burning throat are typical symptoms.

Esophagitis needs to be treated in order to prevent long-term health problems, although recovery is possible.

Esophagitis with eosinophilia is one variation of the illness. This is a persistent food allergy that results in inflammation of the food pipe. The diagnosis might be difficult, and different professionals may need to collaborate on the treatment strategy.

Eosinophilic esophagitis can be diagnosed by a doctor using a tissue sample from the patient’s throat, a skin prick test, or blood tests.

Eliminating a particular food from the diet that is triggering the reaction frequently alleviates the inflammation.

A Home Remedy

A person may need medical attention, depending on the medical condition causing the burning in the throat.

However, home remedies can be useful for treating symptoms and relieving discomfort when the ailment is the result of a cold, flu, or tonsillitis.

When fighting off a cold or the flu, it’s important to stay hydrated because the body loses fluids through sweating and runny nose. The body can work better and resist viruses and bacteria with the aid of water.

Drinking enough of liquids can aid in preventing the throat from drying out, which can irritate it. Try consuming a beverage made of hot water, honey, and lemon to relieve throat discomfort.

Heat relaxes muscles and helps ease discomfort, so keeping the throat warm can also help with soreness. For warmth, loosely encircle the neck in a scarf.

Resting is important because the body needs time to heal. Reduced activity and time off from work or school can aid in recuperation and stop the spread of infections.

Whenever to visit a doctor

A person should consult their doctor if they experience both chest pain and a burning throat.

Tonsillitis or a cold are typically best treated at home. Medication may be necessary for other conditions.

Consult a doctor if a sore throat persists for longer than two weeks.

A burning throat may be accompanied by more severe symptoms. Adults who exhibit any of the following symptoms in addition to the flu may require emergency medical care:

Chest pain

Dizziness

Confusion

Not going potty

Severe muscular ache

Extreme fragility

Having trouble breathing

Seizures

If there are any questions regarding symptoms, persons over the age of 65, children, pregnant women, and those with compromised immune systems should consult a doctor.

Conclusion

In conclusion, tonsillitis, GERD, colds, and other illnesses can all result in a burning sensation in the throat.

Keep the neck wet and use other natural therapies to relieve the soreness.

Consult a doctor for a complete diagnosis and treatment if symptoms are severe or if over-the-counter medications do not sufficiently relieve them within a few weeks.

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Green Tea – Health Benefits

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Green Tea – Health Benefits

You know that green tea provides many benefits for us and our health. Chinese knew about the health benefits of green tea long ago and they are using green tea to treat everything, from headaches to stress. We give you 18 good reasons why you should drink this magical herb.

1. Green Tea helps in weight loss

Green tea helps in melting fat, which is very good if we are willing to lose weight. Except burning fat, green tea also boosts our metabolism naturally. It can help us burn up to 70 calories in just one day. That means if we consume green tea regularly we can lose up to 3.5 kg (7.5 lbs) per year.

2. Green Tea reduces blood cholesterol levels

Green tea can help reducing blood cholesterol levels. It also enhances relationship between bad cholesterol and good cholesterol, by reducing bad cholesterol level.

3. Green Tea prevents heart diseases

Green tea helps preventing heart disease and stroke, thus reduces bad cholesterol level.  After a heart attack, green tea speeds up the recovery of the heart cells.

4. Green Tea reduces risk of cancer

Green tea helps reducing the risk of cancer. Antioxidants in green tea are more effective than vitamin C and also are considered to be much better than vitamin E. It helps your body protect cells from damage related to cancer.

5. Green Tea reduces the risk of arthritis

Green tea can reduce and sometimes help against the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. It protects the cartilage by blocking the enzyme that destroys cartilage.

6. Green Tea is good for treating Alzheimer’s

There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but green tea helps in slowing down the process that releases acetylcholine in the brain, leading to Alzheimer’s disease, so it helps improving your memory.

7. Green Tea strengthens our bones

Green tea has high fluoride content. Fluoride helps maintaining bone strength. If you drink green tea every day, it will help you keep your bone density.

8. Green Tea for anti-aging treatment

Green tea helps against aging and helps us look beautiful and younger. This benefit comes due to the antioxidants known as polyphenols which fight against harmful effects of free radicals causing skin aging and wrinkling.

 9. Green Tea prevents obesity

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Green tea prevents obesity by stopping glucose turn into fat cells. If you drink green tea and if you practice healthy diet, also if you exercise regularly, you will never be overweight and you will have nice sculpted body and excellent health.

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10. Green Tea is good for patients with diabetes

Green tea improves glucose metabolism and prevents increasing of blood sugar levels.

11. Green Tea helps preventing high blood pressure

Drinking green tea helps keeping lower blood pressure by repressing angiotensin, which leads to high blood pressure.

12. Green Tea helps preventing Parkinson’s disease

People who drink green tea reduce the probability of having Parkinson’s disease. Antioxidants in green tea help preventing brain cell damage, which could cause Parkinson’s disease.

13. Green Tea is good for liver diseases

It helps preventing transplantation in people with liver failure. Green tea also destroys harmful free radicals in fatty liver.

14. Green Tea strengthens the immune system

Green tea contains flavonoids and polyphenols which help in strengthening the immune system, making your body become stronger and fight against infections.

15. Green Tea reduces blood sugar

Green tea contains polyphenols and polysaccharides that help us reducing blood sugar.

16. Green tea helps fighting flu and allergies

Green tea contains Vitamin C which helps preventing and also fighting flu. Epigallocatechin gallate which is found in green tea relieves allergies.

17. Green Tea reduces stress and helps against tooth decay

Green tea is rich in L-theanine – amino acid which can help reducing stress. Green tea also destroys viruses and bacteria which cause many dental diseases of teeth.

 18. Green Tea prevents food poisoning

Green tea contains antioxidant catechin capable of destroying bacteria responsible for food poisoning, green tea also kills toxins in our body.

 

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